1. Cooperative Learning
    • Cooperative learning (Vygotsky supports this theory) is an approach to organizing classroom activities
    • into academic and social learning experiences. Students must work in
    • groups to complete the two sets of tasks collectively. Everyone
    • succeeds when the group succeeds.
  2. Assimilation
    Assimilation (supported by Piaget) is the process of understanding a new object or event in terms of an exisiting scheme. If you give young infants small objects that they have never seen before but that resemble familiar objects, they are likely to grasp them, bite them, and bang them. In other words, they will try to use existing schemes to learn about these unknown things.
  3. Private Speech
    Private speech is a mechanism that Vygotsky emphasized for turning shared knowledge into personal knowledge. Vygotsky proposed that children incorporate the speech of others and then use that speech to help themselves solve problems. Studies have found that children who make extensive use of provate speech learn complex tasks more effectively than do other children.
  4. Accomodation
    When old ways of dealing with the world simply dont work; a child might modify an exisiting scheme in light of new information or a new experience, a process called accomodation.
  5. Reading Recovery
    • Reading Recovery is an intensive,one-to-one intervention for children experiencing reading difficulties
    • after one year of primary school. It aims to intervene before“dysfunctional strategies” and feelings of failure take firm hold in
    • young learners. The programme consists of daily half-hour lessons taught by a teacher trained to diagnose and support a problem-solving
    • approach to reading texts. Lessons are planned so that the learner, no matter how inexperienced with print, is enabled to “act like a reader
    • and writer”. Marie Clay, the founder of Reading Recovery, devised the programme on the basis of intensive work with both fluent and poor
    • readers more than twenty years ago in New Zealand.
  6. Zone of Proximal Development
    Tasks within the zone of proximal development that are ones that a child cannot yet do alone but could do with the assistance of more competent peers or adults. That is, the zone of proximal development describes taks that a child has not yet learned but is capable of learning at a given time.
  7. Procedure
    Step-by-step instructions on how to perform a task based on technical and theoretical knowledge.
  8. Follow-Up Activities
    What lessons might follow as a result of this lesson?
  9. Performance Standards
    • Performance standards provide clear statements of the kinds of performances that constitute evidence that students had met the content
    • standards.
  10. Adaptation
    Is the process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assisimilation and accomodation.
  11. Objective
    Objectives state what is to be achieved and cover the range of desired outcomes to achieve a goal.
  12. Inner Speech
    Inner speech is the opposite; it is the conversion of speech into inward thought.
  13. IEP
    • Kids with delayed skills or other disabilities might be eligible for special services that provide individualized education programs in
    • public schools, free of charge to families. Understanding how to access these services can help parents be effective advocates for their kids.
  14. Assessment
    Assessment is intended to improvestudent learning. Its systematic processprovides those evaluating it with anopportunity to meaningfully reflect onhow learning is best delivered, gatherevidence of that, and then use thatinformation to improve.
  15. Objective Performance
    When a child doesn't know when a object is there or not (peekaboo)
  16. Preoperational Stage (2-7)
    you put a black rag over a car then they would say the car is black.
  17. Concrete Operational Stage (7-11)
    when students see a car with a black rag and stills says its red.
  18. Formal Operational Stage
    child thinks about the future
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