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  1. What is the difference between sex and gender?
    The physical and biological difference v. the attributes we have given that gender from socialization
  2. What is patriarchy?
    Man controlled household
  3. How do functionalists perceive gender inequality?
    It's helpful when separate sexes have separate roles
  4. What are the two gender roles in functionalism?
    • Instrumental - father
    • Expressive - mother
  5. Who were the functionalists that researched gender inequality?
    Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales
  6. What was the conflict theory perspective on gender inequality?
    They linked modern gender inequality to economic system and capitalism.
  7. Who was the conflict theorist that researched gender inequality?
    Friedrich Engles
  8. What did both functionalism and conflict theory agree on in gender inequality?
    Gender inequality stems from social roles
  9. What do people learn from gender role socialization?
    • Values
    • Attitudes
    • Motivations
    • Behaviors
  10. What is common in childhood gender socialization?
    • Parents treat each differently
    • Parents respond/train children based on perception of how they think they should be.
  11. What is common in adolescent gender socialization?
    • Establishment of social identity
    • Social role training where females are supposed to find a mate, males are supposed to find a job
  12. What are the 3 primary discrimination against women?
    • 1) During hiring process
    • 2) Through unequal wage policies
    • 3) In the awarding of promotions
  13. What is a family?
    A social group with common residence, economic corporation, and reproduction
  14. What were the traditional family necessities?
    • adults of both sexes
    • socially approved sexual relations
    • one or more child
  15. Who first defined a family? When?
    Murdoch 1949
  16. What are the 6 social functions of a family?
    • Regulating social behavior
    • Patterning reproduction
    • Organizing production/consumption
    • Socializing children
    • Providing care & protection
    • Providing social status
  17. What are the 3 basic family structures?
    • Nuclear - mom, dad, 2.5 children...
    • Polygamous - multiple marriages
    • Extended - mom, dad, children, grandparents...
  18. Which family structure is found in every society?
  19. What is a polyandrous family?
    A family with more than one husband
  20. What is a polygynous family?
    A family with more than one wife
  21. What are the 3 generational relationships?
    • Patriarchal - trace through father
    • Matriarchal - trace through mother
    • Bilateral - trace through both
  22. What makes marriage different from, say, friendship?
    • recognized
    • legitimized
    • supported
  23. How is romantic love as a reason for family?
    ideal, but not main reason for marraige
  24. What are the 4 marriage rules?
    • Endogamy/Exogamy
    • Monogamy/Polygamy
  25. What is endogamy?
    Where marriage is allowed only outside of a social group
  26. What is exogamy?
    Where marriage is allowed only outside of a social group
  27. What is monogamy?
    Marriage with only one spouse
  28. What are the 4 types of marital residence?
    • Patrilocal - where dad lives
    • Matrilocal - where mom lives
    • Bilocal - where mutual decision
    • Neolocal - doesn't matter
  29. What is homogamy?
    Marriage between two people similar in some aspect
  30. What are the 4 main variables in homogamy?
    • Age
    • Race
    • Religion
    • Social Status
  31. What was the impact of Industrialization on the nuclear family?
    • Isolated nuclear family
    • Weak ties to extended family
    • Increased movement between classes
  32. What were the 6 ways traditional family declined?
    • Postponement of marriage
    • Single-parent homes
    • Declining marriage rate
    • Childless marriage
    • Household size decline
    • Impact of divorce
  33. What were the social processes of divorce?
    • Changing laws
    • Child custody
  34. What makes current family diverse?
    • Growing single population
    • Single-parent households
    • Gay and lesbian couples
  35. What is a sick role?
    A shared set of cultural norms that legitimates deviant behavior caused by an illness
  36. What is the purpose of education?
    to equalize society
  37. What is the 6 functionalist perspectives of education?
    • Socialization
    • Cultural Transmission
    • Academic Skills
    • Innovation
    • Child Care
    • Postpone Job Hunting
  38. What is the conflict theory perspective on education?
    Social control with hidden curriculum: Prepare to accept adult life andĀ educate social, political, and economic statuses
  39. What are the 7 problems with the American education?
    • Unequal access to education
    • ESOL
    • HS Dropouts
    • Violence in Schools
    • Homeschooling
    • Standardized Testing
    • Gender Bias
    • The Gifted
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