data collection

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  1. Major Types of Data Collection Methods


    biophysiologic measures
  2. dimensions of data collection
    • structure
    • quantifiable 
    • researcher obtrusiveness 
    • objectivity
  3. types of qualitative self-reports
    • unstructured interviews
    • semi-structured interviews 
    • focus group interviews
    • life histories 
    • critical interviews
    • think-aloud method
    • diaries and journals
  4. ™Unstructured interviews
    ™Conversational, totally flexible

    ™Use of grand tour questions
  5. ™Semistructured interviews
    ™Use of a topic guide
  6. ™Focus group interviews
    ™Interviews in small groups (5 to 10 people)

    ™Led by a moderator
  7. ™Life histories
    ™Narrative self-descriptions of life experiences

    ™Often a chronology
  8. ™Critical incidents interviews
    ™Focuses on specific incidents that had a discernible impact on some outcome
  9. ™Think-aloud method
    ™Means of collecting data about cognitive processes as they unfold (e.g., clinical decision-making)
  10. Structured Self-Reports
    • ™Data are collected with a formal instrument.
    • - interview schedule
    • - questionnaire
  11. interview schedule
    ™Questions are prespecified but asked orally.

    Either face-to-face or by telephone
  12. Questionnaire
    ™Questions prespecified in written form, to be self-administered by respondents
  13. Types of Questions in a Structured Instrument
    ™Closed-ended (fixed alternative) questions 

    ™Open-ended questions
  14. ™Closed-ended (fixed alternative) questions
    • –e.g., “Within the past 6 months, were you ever a
    • member of a fitness center or gym?” (yes/no)
  15. ™Open-ended questions
    –e.g., “Why did you decide to join a fitness center or gym?”
  16. Types of Closed-Ended Questions
    ™Dichotomous questions

    ™Multiple-choice questions

    ™Cafeteria questions

    ™Rank-order questions

    ™Forced-choice questions

    ™Rating questions
  17. Advantages of Questionnaires vs. Interviews
    ™Lower costs

    ™Possibility of anonymity, greater privacy

    ™Lack of interviewer bias
  18. Advantages of Interviews vs. Questionnaires
    ™Higher response rates

    • ™Appropriate for more diverse audiences
    • ™
    • ™Opportunities to clarify questions or to determine comprehension

    ™Opportunity to collect supplementary data through observation
  19. Psychosocial Scales
    • - scales
    • - likert scale
    • - semantic differential scales
  20. scales
    used to make fine quantitative discrimination among people with different attitudes, perceptions, traits
  21. likert scales
    ™Consist of several declarative statements (items) expressing viewpoints

    ™Responses are on an agree/disagree continuum (usually 5 or 7 response options).

    ™Responses to items are summed to compute a total scale score.
  22. Semantic Differential Scales
    ™Require ratings of various concepts

    ™Rating scales involve bipolar adjective pairs, with 7-point ratings.

    ™Ratings for each dimension are summed to compute a total score for each concept.
  23. Visual Analog Scale (VAS)
    ™Used to measure subjective experiences (e.g., pain, nausea)

    ™Measurements are on a straight line measuring 100 mm

    ™End points labeled as extreme limits of sensation
  24. Response Set Biases
    ™Biases reflecting the tendency of some people to respond to items in characteristic ways, independently of item content
  25. examples of response set biases
    –Social desirability response set bias

    –Extreme response set

    –Acquiescence response set (yea- sayers)

    –Nay-sayers response set
  26. acquiescence response set [yea-sayers]
    a tendency to agree with statements regardless of their content by some people.
  27. nay-sayers response set
    a tendency to disagree with statements independently of the question content
  28. extreme response set
    a tendency to consistently express extreme attitudes or feelings [e.g., strongly agree], leading to distortions because extreme responses may be unrelated to the trait being measursed
  29. social desirability response set bias
    a tendency to consistently misrepresent attitudes or traits by giving answers that are consistent with prevailing social views
  30. Q Sorts
    ™Participants sort a deck of cards into piles according to specific criteria.

    ™Cards contain statements to be sorted on a bipolar continuum (e.g., most like me/least like me).

    ™Usually 50 to 100 cards; usually 9 or 11 piles
  31. Vignettes
    ™Brief descriptions of situations to which respondents are asked to react

    ™Descriptions are usually written “stories.”

    ™Respondents can be asked open-ended or closed-ended questions about their reactions.

    ™Aspects of the vignettes can be experimentally manipulated.
  32. Evaluation of Self Reports
    ™Strong on directness

    ™Allows access to information otherwise not available to researchers

    ™But can we be sure participants actually feel or act the way they say they do?
  33. Phenomena Amenable to Research Observation
    ™Activities and behavior

    ™Characteristics and conditions of individuals

    ™Skill attainment and performance

    ™Verbal and nonverbal communication

    ™Environmental characteristics
  34. Observation qualitative studies
    • ™Qualitative studies: Unstructured observation in
    • naturalistic settings

    –Includes Participant observation
  35. Observation in quantitative studies
    ™Structured observation of prespecified behaviors
  36. The Observer–Participant Role in Participant Observation
    ™Leininger’s Four-Phase Sequence:

    –- Primarily observation

    –- Primarily observation with some participation

    –- Primarily participation with some observation

    –- Reflective observation
  37. Recording Unstructured Observations
    ™Logs (field diaries)

    ™Field notes
  38. Recording Unstructured Observations: –Reflective notes include
    ™Methodologic notes

    ™Theoretical notes (or analytical notes)

    ™Personal notes
  39. logs
    a daily record of events and onversations
  40. field notes
    • are broader and more interpretative notes
    • represents the observer's effort to record information and to synthesis and understand the data
  41. descriptive [observational] notes
    are objective descriptions of events and conversations, and the context in which they occur
  42. reflective notes
    documents researchers' personal experiences, reflections, and progress in the field, and can serve different purposes
  43. theoretical notes
    documents interpretive efforts to attach meaning to onservations
  44. methodologic notes
    are reminders about how subsequents observations should be made
  45. personal notes
    are comments about the researcher's own feelings during the research process
  46. ™Category systems =>=>=> Checklists
    –Formal systems for systematically recording the incidence or frequency of prespecified behaviors or events
  47. exhaustive system
    all behavior of a specific type recorded and each behavior is assigned to one matually exclusive category
  48. nonexhaustive system
    specific behaviors, nut not all behaviors, recorded
  49. Ratings are on a ....?
    descriptive continuum, typically bipolar
  50. ratings can occur:
    • at specific times
    • upon the occurrence of certain events
    • after an observational session [global ratings ]
  51. time-sampling
    sampling of time intervals for observation
  52. examples of time-sampling
    1. random sampling of intervals of a given length 

    2. systematic sampling of intervals of a given length
  53. event sampling
    observation of integral [essential] events
  54. evaluation of observational methods
    • excellent method for capturing many clinical phenomena and behaviors 
    • potential problem of relativity when people are aware that they are being observed
    • risk of observational bias [factors that can interfere with objective observation]
  55. biophysical methods include
    - in vivo measurments

    - in vitro measurements
  56. in vivo measurements
    performed directly within or on living organisms [e.g., blood pressure measurements]
  57. in vitro measurements
    performed outside the organism's body [e.g., urianlysis ]
  58. evaluation of biophysical measures
    • strong on accuracy, objectivity, validity, and precision
    • may be cost-effective for nurse researchers
    • but caution may be required for their use, and advanced skills may be needed for interpretation
Card Set
data collection
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