Music 15 Final Study Guide

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  1. Salon
    • -A recurring social gathering, typically in a private home
    • -Had the purpose of discussing artistic works, as well as other intellectual topics
  2. Strophic
    -A section of music repeats with different words each time
  3. Through-Composed
    • -The entire song is one large unit
    • -No large scale repetition
  4. Franz Schubert

    1) Birthplace
    2) Wrote
    3) Known for
    -Born in Vienna, idolized Beethoven

    Among one of the earliest Romantic composers and wrote symphonies and chamber music

    Best known for his Lieders, and he wrote more than 600 songs
  5. Song Cycle
    -A set of songs written by a composer as a set

    Typically connected by common musical elements

    Intended to be performed together
  6. Robert Schumann

    Wrote what?
    Suffered from?


    -Wrote symphonies, short piano works, Lieders

    A mental disorder later in life
  7. Rubato
    -Refers to expressive and rhythmic freedom by a slight speeding up and then slowing down of the tempo

    -At the discretion of soloist or the conductor
  8. Genre: Character Piece
    • -Romantic era, for domestic or public
    • -Voices a mood

    • -Solo piano
    • -Often ternary form (ABA)
    • -Relatively short with one movement
  9. Three subgenres of a character piece
    -Nocturne (a "night piece")

    -Etude (a "study")

    -Waltz (a "dance")
  10. Frederic Chopin

    Wrote what?
    Exclusively what instrument?
    -Polish and French, died at 39 of TB

    -Wrote domestic pieces

    -Exclusively piano
  11. Franz Liszt

    Best known for?
    -Hungarian, piano virtuoso

    Big womanizer, very religious

    -Piano works and symphonic poems
  12. Johannes Brahms

    Advocate of what?
    Known as what and never wrote what?
    -German, close friends with Schumann

    -Advocate of absolute music

    -Known as a perfectionist and never wrote opera
  13. Program Music
    -Musical compositions intended to depict or suggest nonmusical incidents, ideas, or images, such as those drawn from literature
  14. Absolute Music
    -Music that is not explicitly "about" anything

    -In contrast to program music, it is non-representational
  15. Hector Berlioz

    -Best known for?
    -Composed how many songs
    -Compositions were critical for what?
    -French, Romantic composer

    -His contributions to modern orchestra

    -50 songs

    Further development of Romanticism
  16. Program symphony
    -A multi-movement composition with extra-musical content that directs the attention of the listener to a literary or pictoral association

    -Hector Berlioz provides a story line (program) for the Symphonie Fantastique
  17. Idée fixe
    - A recurring theme or character trait that serves as the

    Traceable to the composer Hector Berlioz, who used the term to denote the recurring theme in his Symphonie fantastique
  18. Bedrich Smetana

    Regarded as?
    Wrote music during?
    Principal conductor of?

    -Father of Czech Music

    -1848 Prague Uprising

    Prague's Provisional Theatre
  19. Symphonic Poem
    -A piece of music, most popular in the late 19th century, that is based on an extramusical theme, such as a story or nationalistic ideal, and usually consists of a single extended movement for a symphony orchestra
  20. Antonin Dvorak

    Studied music where?
    Wrote what?
    Director of what?
    • -Czech
    • -Prague's organ school
    • -Composer/musician (viola)
    • -Wrote many concertos, 11 operas
    • -National Conservatory of Music of America
  21. Jaroslav Kvapil

    Director where?
    Wrote how many plays?
    • -Czech
    • -Poet. playwright, and librettist
    • -National theatre in Prague
    • -6
  22. Lied
    • - Describes the setting of romantic German poems to music, especially during the nineteenth century
    • -Solo/vocalist piano accompaniment
    • -Schubert/Schumann
  23. Exoticism
    -Practically all Romantic composers wrote works with elements of exoticism, which really just means the incorporation of melodic or thematic material from a non-German source
  24. Nationalism
    -The use of musical ideas or motifs that are identified with a specific country, region, or ethnicity, such as folk tunes and melodies, rhythms, and harmonies inspired by them
  25. Organicism
    -Philosophy whose major categories are derived metaphorically from the attributes of living and growing things.

    -Based on the conviction that art should imitate nature
  26. Motive
    -In music, a leading phrase or figure that is reproduced and varied through the course of a composition or movement
  27. Symphony
    - Extended musical composition in Western classical music, generally scored for orchestra or concert band

    -A symphony usually contains at least one movement or episode composed according to the sonata principle
  28. Sonata
    -A form of a movement consisting of three sections, the exposition, development, and recapitulation, often followed by a coda.
  29. Heiligenstadt Testament
    -Letter written by Ludwig van Beethoven to his brothers Carl and Johann at Heiligenstadt (today part of Vienna) on 6 October 1802.

    -Reflects his despair over his increasing deafness and his desire to overcome his physical and emotional ailments
  30. Beethoven's three style periods



    -His Early Period features music that imitates the style of Haydn, Mozart. Classical

    • -Contains most popular music. Loud, pounding music
    • -Staked his claim at being the first Romantic composer

    • - Late works are greatly admired for and characterized by their intellectual depth, intense and highly personal expression, and experimentation with forms
    • -Could reflect his declining health
  31. Ludwig van Beethoven

    Composed how many songs?
    Stopped conducting and performing because?
    • -German
    • -Composer and pianist, one of the most famous
    • -9 symphonies, 5 concertos for piano, 32 piano sonatas, and 16 string quartets
    • -Went deaf, but continued to compose (Late Period)
  32. Giuseppi Verdi

    Involved in what?
    Wrote how many operas?
    • -Italian, "Viva Verdi", one of Italy's favorite composers
    • -Involved in Italian nationalist movement
    • -28 operas
  33. Richard Wagner

    Unlike other composers, wrote what?
    His pieces are known for?
    • -German
    • -Composer, theatre director, conductor
    • -Libretto for his works
    • -Their complex textures, rich harmonies and orchestration
    • -Built his own opera house
  34. Bayreuth
    -The Richard Wagner Festival in Bayreuth was opened in 1876 with three performances of the complete Ring

    -Here, only Richard Wagner's works are performed
  35. Gesamtkunstwerk
    - A work of art that makes use of all or many art forms or strives to do so

    - Richard Wagner used the term in two 1849 essays
  36. Leitmotif
    -An associated melodic phrase or figure that accompanies the reappearance of an idea, person, or situation especially in a Wagnerian music drama
  37. Ring of the Nibelung
    -A cycle of four epic operas by the German composer Richard Wagner

    Wagner intended them to be performed in series
  38. Requiem Mass
    -A eucharist service in the Roman Catholic church to remember someone who has died

    -Notable for the large number of musical compositions that it has inspired, including settings by Mozart, Verdi
  39. Rafael Schachter

    Set up smuggled piano where?
    • -Czech
    • -Pianist and conductor
    • -In concentration camp
    • -Assembled male/female choirs
    • -Wrote opera in concentration camp
  40. Rondo form
    -A type of music that usually has repeated sections in it with contrasting sections in between the repeated sections. One of the most famous rondo form music is, “Romance” that was written by Mozart.
  41. Peter Ilych Tchaikovsky

    Wrote what?
    Main characteristics?
    • -Russian, very successful in Russia
    • -Late Romantic
    • -Ballets
    • -Sexual identity, end-of-century pessimism
  42. Marius Petipa

    Considered to be?
    Wrote how many ballets?
    • -French-Russian
    • -Ballet dance teacher, teacher, choreographer
    • -Most influential ballet master and choreographer of ballet who has ever lived
    • -Wrote over 50 ballets
  43. Modernism
    -A 20th century movement in art literature that centered around making a self-conscious break with the past in order to create works that were wholly new
  44. Claude Debussy

    Went where at age 11?
    Influenced by what three things?
    • -French
    • -Paris Conservatory
    • -Impressionism in painting, symbolism in poetry, exotic scales
  45. Impressionism
    -A movement in European classical music, mainly in France, that began in the late nineteenth century and continued into the middle of the twentieth century

    Focused on suggestion and atmosphere rather than strong emotion or the depiction of a story as in program music
  46. Symbolism
    -Late 19th century French movement


    -Suggest, don't describe and free verse

    Main proponent: Stephane Mallarme, poet and critic
  47. Stephane Mallarmé

    Worked as a what?
    Influenced what?
    • -French
    • -Poet and critic
    • -English teacher
    • -Mallarmé's poetry has been the inspiration for several musical pieces, notably Claude Debussy's Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune
  48. Vaslav Nijinsky

    Considered what?
    Could perform what and joined what?
    • -Russian
    • -Ballet dancer and choreographer
    • -The greatest male dancer of the 20th century
    • - He could perform en pointe, a rare skill among male dancers at the time, and joined the Ballet Russes
  49. Ballet Russes
    • Itinerant ballet company based in Paris that performed between 1909 and 1929 throughout Europe and on tours to North and South America
    • -The company never performed in Russia, and (after its initial Paris season) had no formal ties there
    • -Most influential ballet company of the 20th century
  50. Serge Diaghilev

    • -Russian
    • Art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes
    • -Members of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes later went on to found ballet traditions in the United States
  51. Impresario
    -A person who organizes and often finances concerts, plays or operas

    -Sergei Diaghilev
    (1872—1929), the company's impresario (or "artistic director" in modern terms), was chiefly responsible for its success
  52. Igor Stravinsky

    Later lived where?
    How did he make his big break?
    • -Russian
    • -France and America
    • -Not well-known in Russia so moved to Paris
    • -By writing music for the Ballet Russes
  53. Primitivism
    • - Its adherents favored simple, clear-cut tunes of folk character that revolved around a central note
    • -Massive harmonies based on block-like chords moving in parallel formation with harshly percussive effect
    • -Strong impulsion to a tonal center
  54. Polytonality
    -The simultaneous occurrence of two or more different tonalities or keys (the interrelated sets of notes and chords used in a composition)
  55. Expressionism
    • - A modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century
    • -Purpose: Present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas
  56. Arnold Schoenberg

    Invented what?
    Came to where and taught where?
    • -Austrian
    • -Post-Wagnerian Romantic style, introduced new atonality to music
    • -The "12-tone method" of composition
    • -Came to America to avoid Nazis, taught at USC and UCLA
  57. Atonality
    • -Music that lacks a tonal center, or key
    • -Pitches sound as though randomly chosen
  58. Klangfarbenmelodie
    • -Schoenberg
    • Style of composition that employs several different kinds of tone colors to a single pitch or to multiple pitches
    • Distributing the pitch or melody among several different instruments
  59. Sprechstimme
    • -Schoenberg
    • -A cross between speaking and singing in which the tone quality of speech is heightened and lowered in pitch along melodic contours indicated in the musical notation
    • -Frequently used in 20th century music
  60. John Cage

    Born where and attended what college?
    Interested in?
    Involved with?
    • -Born in LA, attended Pomona College
    • -Non-western philosophy, pushes boundaries of music
    • -Performance and conceptual art movements
  61. Aaron Copland

    Born where and studied where?
    Wrote what kind of music?
    Changed to what style?
    Music described as what?
    • -Born in New York, studied in Paris
    • -In 1920s, wrote music with both jazz and atonal influences
    • -In 1930s, changed to a more populist style
    • -Music described as "American"
  62. Martha Graham

    Influence has been compared to who?
    • -Dancer and choreographer
    • -Influence on dance has been compared with the influence Picasso had on the modern visual arts
  63. Extended techniques
    -a term used in music to describe unconventional, unorthodox, or non-traditional methods of singing or of playing musical instruments 
  64. Prepared piano
    -A piano technique modified by inserting specific items (bolts, screws, pieces of wood or rubber) into the string in order to modify their timbre
  65. Minimalism
    -A term used in music to describe unconventional, unorthodox, or non-traditional methods of singing or of playing musical instruments 
  66. Leonard Bernstein

    One of first conductors to receive what?
    Wrote what?
    • -American composer, conductor, author, music lecturer, and pianist.
    • -He was among the first conductors born and educated in the United States of America to receive worldwide acclaim
    • -symphonic and orchestral music, ballet, film and theatre music, choral works, opera, chamber music and pieces for the piano
  67. Mambo
    • -A musical form and dance style that developed originally in Cuba, with further significant developments by Cuban musicians in Mexico and the USA
  68. John Williams

    Considered to be?
    Composed music for first 3?
    How many Academy Award nominations?
    • -Composer, conductor, and pianist
    • -One of the greatest film composers of all time
    • -Harry Potter films
    • -48
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Music 15 Final Study Guide
UCSB Music 15 Final Study
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