theoretical and conceptual frameworks

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  1. theory
    an abstraction that purports to account for or explain phenomena
  2. classical theory
    An abstract generalization that systematically explains relationships among phenomena [explains how phenomena are interrelated]
  3. descriptive theory
    A theory that thoroughly describes a phenomenon, based on rich observations of it
  4. grand theory
    • —A theory that attempts to explain large aspects of human experiences
    • - Holism
  5. middle-range theory
    A theory that focuses on a specific aspect of human experience (e.g., stress, infant attachment)
  6. conceptual models
    —Deal with abstractions, assembled in a coherent scheme

    —Represent a less formal attempt to explain phenomena than theories

    —Do not have formal propositions about relationships among phenomena
  7. Commonalities—Theories and Conceptual Models
    —Use concepts as building blocks

    —Require conceptual definitions of key concepts

    —Can be represented in a schematic model

    —Are created by humans

    —Are developed inductively

    —Cannot be proven—they are supported to greater or lesser degrees

    —Can be used to generate hypotheses

    —Can serve as a stimulus to research
  8. conceptual models of nursing
    formal explanation of what nursing practice is
  9. four concepts central to models of nursing
    • human beings
    • environment 
    • health 
    • nursing
  10. who identified the four concepts central to nursing
    jacqueline faucet
  11. conceptual models of nursing that have been used in nursing research include
    —Neuman’s - Health Care Systems Model

    —Newman’s - Health as Expanding Consciousness

    —Orem’s - Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory

    —Parse’s - Theory of Human Becoming

    —Rogers’ - Science of Unitary Human Beings

    —Roy’s - Adaptation Model
  12. what are some other [middle-range] theories developed by nurses
    —Pender’s - Health Promotion Model (HPM)

    —Mishel’s - Uncertainty in Illness Theory

    —Lenz’s - Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms

    —Reed’s - Self-Transcendence Theory

    —Johnson’s - Self-Regulation Theory
  13. examples of non-nursing models used by nurse researchers
    —Shared theories

    Bandura’s - Social Cognitive Theory

    —Prochaska’s - Transtheoretical Model

    —Becker’s - Health Belief Model (HBM)

    —Ajzen’s - Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

    —Lazarus and Folkman’s - Theory of Stress and Coping
  14. theories embedded in research tradition include
    • grounded theory 
    • ethnography 
    • phenomenology
  15. The Use of Theories or Models in Quantitative Research
    —Testing a theory through deducing hypothesis to be tested

    —Testing a theory-based intervention

    —Using a theory/model as an organizing or interpretive structure

    • —[we do not want to] Fit a problem into theory, after the fact (not recommended)
    • - —Should use it as your driving force rather than a after the fact
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theoretical and conceptual frameworks
3215 final
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