MCB nervous practical set 5

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  1. Neurological Conditions
  2. ALS (Causes)
    • 10% of cases have genetic causes
    • mutation in chromosome
    • other 90% have no known causes
    • Possible causes are head trauma, electrical shock, chemical exposure
  3. ALS (Symptoms)
    • Degeneration of motor neurons in brain and spinal cord (lead to muscle atrophy)
    • difficulty talking
    • difficulty swallowing
    • eventual loss of all voluntary motor control
  4. ALS (Treatment)
    • Medication (Glutamate inhibitor can slow disease by a few months)
    • physical therapy to slow muscle atrophy
    • ventilator to aid breathing
  5. Bell's Palsy (Causes)
    • facial paralysis from dysfunction of CN VII
    • no specific cause (if specific cause then NOT bell's palsy)
    • often associated with inflammation of the facial nerve
  6. Bell's Palsy (Symptoms)
    facial dropping on one half of face
  7. Bell's Palsy (Treatment)
    • most patients recover without treatment
    • steroids to reduce inflammation of nerve
    • antiviral medications if inflammation is believed to be caused by virus
  8. Cerebral Palsy (Causes)
    • groups of non-contagious motor conditions that do not get worse
    • affects cerebrum
    • damage to motor control centers of brain
    • can happen after pregnancy, birth
    • lack of oxygen due to trauma of infection is most common cause
  9. Cerebral Palsy (Symptoms)
    • slouching while sitting
    • poor reflexes
    • underdeveloped coordination
    • symptoms can be very mild too extreme that a patient has no coordinated movement
  10. Cerebral Palsy (Treatment)
    • cannot treat disease, can manage symptoms
    • brains in young children can compensate for damaged tissue by reorganizing pathways
    • PT
    • assistive devices
    • occupational therapy
  11. Parkinson's (causes)
    • degenerative disorder of CNS
    • environmental (pesticide exposure, heavy metal exposure)
    • genetics (1/8 family history)
    • head trauma
  12. Parkinson's (Symptoms)
    • temors
    • slow movement
    • limb stiffness
    • posture instability
    • slower cognition
  13. Parkinson's (treatment)
    • cannot treat, but manage symptoms
    • dopamine replacement to aid muscle control
    • deep brain stimulation
  14. Seizures (Causes)
    • unusually high and/or synchronous brain activity
    • head trauma
    • infection in CNS
    • drug overdose or withdrawl
    • blood vessel malformations
  15. Seizures (symptoms)
    • involuntary changes in movement and behavior
    • often sudden contraction of muscles and loss of consciousness
    • memory loss
    • sensory alteration
  16. Seizures (treatment)
    anti-epileptic medication
  17. Vertigo (causes)
    • type of dizziness
    • problems in semicircular canals of ear
    • lesions in brainstem or cerebellum
  18. Vertigo (symptoms)
    • patient feels they or their environment is spinning
    • nausea
    • postural instability
    • difficulty walking
  19. Vertigo (treatment)
    • epley maneuver (series of head movements to get foreign substances out of semicircular canals)
    • anti-inflammatory drugs for inner ear infections
Card Set
MCB nervous practical set 5
Set #5 (neuropathology)
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