not true acid waves, as they have a pH between 7.8 and 8.2 and use glyceryl monthioglycolate (gmtg) as the primary reducing agent. Acid-balancedwaves process at room temperature. do not require the added heat of a hair dryer, process more quickly and produce firmer curls then true acid waves.
Alkaline waves (or cold waves)
have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6 use ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) as the rducing agentm and process at room temperature.
compunds made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
perms use alkanlamines instead of ammonia, and are popular because of their low odor.
active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline permanents.
position of the rod in relation to its base section, determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
angle at which the rod is positioned on the head (horizontally , vertically, or diagonally); also the directional pattern in which the hair is wrapped.
the postition of the rod in relation to its base section, and is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped,. rods can be wrapped on bace, half off base or off base.
relaxers that require the application of protective base cream to the entire scalp prior to the application of the relaxer.
subsections of panels into which hair is divided for perm wrapping; one rod is normally placed on each base section.
basic perm wrap
perm wrap in which all the rods within a panel move in the same direction and are positioned on equal-sixe bases; all base section are horizontal, with the same length and width as the perm rod.
perm wrap in which one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope.
bricklay perm wrap
perm wrap similar to actual technique of bricklaying; base sections are offest from each other row by row.
chemical hair relaxing
rearranges the structure of hair into a straighter or smoother form.
chemical texture services
hair services that cause a chemical change that permanetly alters the natural wave pattern of the hair.
perm rods that have a smaller diameter in the center that increases to a larger diameter on the ends.
middle layer of the hair located directly beneath the cuticle layer. the cortex is responsible for the incredible strength and elasticity of human hair.
perms in which the hair strands are wrapped at an angle perpendicular to the perm rod, in overlapping concentric layers.
curvature perm wrap
perm wrap in which partings and bases radiate throughout the panels to follow the curvature of the head.
chemical side bonds that are formed when sulfuur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together. disulfie bonds can only be broken by chemicals and cannot be broken by heat or water
double flat wrap
perm wrap in which one end paper is placed under, and one is placed over, the strand of hair being wrapped.
double-rod (piggy back) technique
perm wrap in which two rods are used for one strand of hair, one on top of the other.
perm activated by and outside , usually a convention hood-type hair dryer.
creates and exothermic chemical reaction that heats up the waving solution and sppeds up processing.
main active ingredient in true acid and acid-balanced waving lotions
half off base placemnt
base control in which the hair is wrapped at an angle of 90 degrees ( perpendicular) to its base section and the rod is positioned half off its base section
weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges; easilly broken by water, as in wet setting, or heat as in thermal styling, and re-frorm as the hair dries or cools
the neutralization of hyroxide relaxer is an acid-alkali neutralization reastion that neutralized (deactivates) the alka line residues left in the hair by the hydroxide relaxer and lowers the pH of the hair and scalp. hydroxide relaxer neutraliztion does not involve oxidation or rebuild disulfide bonds.
very strong alkaalis with a p H over 13. the hydroxide ion is the active ingredient in all hyroxide relaxers.
process by which hydroxice relaxers permanently straighten hair; breaks the hair's disulfide bonds during processing and converts them to lanthioine bonds when the relaxer is rinssed from the hair
loop or circle rod
tool that usually about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the enitre length of the rod
perms that work at a low pH, and use sufates, sulfites, and bisulfites as alternative to ammonium thioglycolate.
innermost layer of the hair and is often called the pith or core of the hair.
metal hydroxide relaxers
ionic compounds formed by metal (sodium, potassium, or lithium) combined with oxygen and hydrogen.
relxers that do not require application of a protective base cream.
conditioners that restore the haris natural pH afther a hydroxide relaxer and prior to shampooing.
off base placement
base control in which the hair is wrapped at 45 degree angle below perpendicular to its base section, and the rod is postioned comletely off its base section.
on base placement
base control in whcih the hair is wrapped at a 45 degree angle byond perpendicular to its base scetion and the rod is postioned on its base section.
peptice bonds or ends bonds
chemical bonds that join amino acids toghter to form polypeptide chains
long chains of amino acids joins together by peptide bonds.
relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between opposite electrical charges; easily broken by changes in pH, as in permanent waving , and re-form when the pH returns to normal.
disulfide, salt, and hydrogen bonds that cross-link polypeptide chains together. side bonds are responsible for the elasticity and incredible strength of the hair.
single flat wrap
perm wrap that is similar to double flat wrap but uses only one end paper placed over the top of the strand of hair being wrapped.
soft bender rods
tool about 12 inches long with a uniform diameter along the enite length. these soft foam rods have a stiff wire inside that permits them to be bent into almost any shape.
soft curl permanent
combination of thio relaxer and a thio permanent wraped on large rods to make existing curl look looser.
spiral perm wrap
hair is wrapped at an angle other than perpendicular to the length of the rold, which causes the hair to spiral along the length of the rod, similar to the grip of a tennis racket.
perm rods thar are equal in diameter along their enitre length or curling area
colorless liquid with a strong unpleasnt odor; provides the hyrogen that causes the reuction reaction in permanent waving solutions.
stops the action of a permanent wave solution and rebuilds the ahir in its new curly form
use the same ammonium thioglycolate (ATG) that is used in permanet waving, but at a higher concentraion
perm that uses cysteamine or mercapptamine instead of ammonium thioglycolate as the primary reducing agent.
true acid waves
have a pH between 4.5 and 7.0 require heat to process ( endothermic) process more slowing than alkaline waves, and do not usually produce as firm a curl as alkaline waves.
wrapping technique that uses zigzag partings to divide base areas.