Psyc 362 Final

  1. Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model
    Input-> Sensory memory (Visual [iconic], Auditory [sounds], Haptic [sense of touch]---attention---> Short-term memory ([STM] Temporary working memory (Control process: Rehearsal, Coding [verbal], Decision, retrieval strategies) --> <-- Long Term Memory ([LTM] Permanent Memory)
  2. Know the details regarding sensory memory (types)
    Very large, Extremely rapid decay (less than a second) and rapidily over written by new incoming sensory info. If you work with it, it will transfer to STM. Types: Visual, Auditory, Haptic
  3. STM, and LTM and how they work together
    STM: Multimodal (general for senses), small capacity (+/- 7), quick decay (less than a min) and over-writing, Rehearsal preserves info into STM, transfers to/from LTM. STM has active contents of consciousness, access is rapid, capacity is limited, and forgotten quickly. LTM usually isn’t in consciousness, access is slower (takes you longer to think about it), capacity is unlimited, forgotten more slowly.
  4. STM – Capacity (digit span), Recoding, Attention, Rehearsal
    Digit span is +/-7, but average is 5. Recoding is chunking, when you find meanings in the info stored in your STM. Chuck in groups or something meaningful.
  5. From STM to Working Memory: Baddeley’s work
    Baddeley proposed that STM be re-conceived as working memory: a workspace for the mind. It collects sensory input, activates relevant LTM’s and transforms info to suit current needs. He believed working memory has 3 component parts.

    • 3 component parts of working memory and their purpose
    • 1)Phonological Loop-your inner voice talking to yourself in your head
    • Sketchpad- inner eye, you visualize it. Both visual and spacial
    • 3) Central executive, your attention. Monitors and manupulates remembered info.
  6. What are The Tower of Hanoi and Stroop tasks used to assess?
    Central Executive and cognitive control; Self-ordered memory task
  7. Role of frontal cortex (PFC) and working memory
    Mamels with larger PFC areas tend to have more larger prefrontal cortex. The proportions are similar between humans and their close primate relatives.
  8. Do mammals with better working memory have proportionately larger PFC areas?
  9. Are PFC proportions similar between humans and their close primate relatives?
  10. Dysexecutive syndrome: what it is, cause, example of Elliot, what neuropsych evaluations show
    A decrease in working memory and executive function. This causes problems both in real life and during psychiatric evaluation. Ex of Elliot: a successful accountat who suffered frontal lobe damage due to surgery, became unreliable, couldn’t maintain relationships, went bankrupt.
  11. The three related facets of emotion
    • Physiological responses (changes in heart rate, respiration, etc.)
    • Overt behaviors (smiling, crying, etc.)
    • Conscious feelings (ID of the emotion)
  12. What did Ekman suggest? emotion?
    Suggested 6 basic emotions: Happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, and disgust
  13. Role of the autonomic nervous system
    AKA ANS. Innervates involuntary muscles and internal organs, and innervates glands, controlling hormonal system.
  14. “fight-or-flight”
    Activation of the sympathetic portion of the ANS. The inportant component is the relase of stress hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and Glucocorticoides (cortisol).
  15. Has there been a dispute over how the physiological and conscious aspects of emotion are organized?
  16. What are the 3 major theories of how emotions are organized?
    • James-Lange: Emotional stimulus -> Bodily response (arousal) -> Conscious emotional feelings
    • Cannon-Bard: Emotional stimulus -> Bodily response (arousal) and Conscious emotional feelings
    • Two-factor: Emotional stimulus -> Bodily Response (arousal) and Cognitive appraisal -> Conscious emotional feelings
  17. Describe in detail, the Two-factor theory
    • Emotional stimulus causes both bodily response and cognitive appraisal. These both lead to conscious emotional feelings. This theory suggests arrousal and context are interpreted by the CNS to generate conscious feelings. Sees emotional feelings as based on interpretation of the situation. E.g. Falling sensation on a roller coaster is interpreted as safe and feeling of exhilaration. However, falling sensation in a crashing elevator is interpreted as unsafe and feeling of fear. S
Who developed the two-factor theory?
    • Stanly Schachter and Jerome Singer
  18. What lab study did they do on two-factor theory
    They injected participants with epinephrin (raising heart rate and blood pressure). Then they put a colleague in the room and were instructed to act either joyful or angry. Participants reported feeling the same feelings as the colleague.

    • Darwin’s observations on nonhuman animals and emotions
    • Fear behaviors very similar across mammalian species: Similarities include startle, hair standing on end, possible loss of bladder control, release of cortisol, increased heart rate, pupil dilation, etc.
  19. Panskepp et al.’s observations on nonhuman animals and emotions
    Extensive evidence that rats laugh and feel joy: During play, rats turn one another over, nuzzle each other’s bellies causing the emission of ultrasonic squeals. Rats prefer to be with rats that tickle and laugh frequently and will avoid those who do so infrequently.
  20. What is the most popular paradigm for studying emotion?
    Conditioned fear, followed by conditioned escape.
  21. What is learned helplessness?
    Inescapable adverse events impair later avoidance learning. E.g. animal exposed to several unavoidable shocks, then given chance to perform avoidance learning, very low rate of avoidance-animal gives up and stops trying.
  22. generalization?
    Research shows learned helplessness can carry over to many tasks, impairing learning, decreasing effort, and dampening mood.
  23. inoculation?
    Early success at controlling averse stimuli diminishes the negative impact of inescapable aversive experiences.
  24. The amygdala’s (emotion processing station) role in emotions
    critical in both learned emotional responses and in the emotional modulation of memory storage and retrieval
  25. What is social learning, exactly?
    Observational learning
  26. What is the role of observation, copying, imitating, modeling
    The learner monitors events involving others and then chooses later actions based on the observation. E.g. if we watch someone exhibit a behavior that has a neg. consequence, we would probably choose to no imitate the behavior.
  27. Why is it considered a powerful form of learning in humans?
    Because you learn from others in videos, reading books, etc. Usually no reward/punishment is given to the person observing. Depends on the learner’s attention to perception of the situation. It’s up to the learner to decide when/how to actually perform behaviors that have been observed.
  28. Significance of Albert Bandura; what was his intent; what he found; role of cognition
    Intent was to see if aggressive behavior in model would be copied by child. He found that by just observing adult behavior influences child behavior. Role of cognition shows an apparent need for complex cognitive processing (not just S-R)
  29. What is the controversy regarding social learning?
    challenged behaviorist approaches
  30. What distinguishes true imitation?
    Copying specific actions learned from another. E.g. not just hitting Bobo, but hitting same way as adult did and yelling the same phrases.
  31. Who was Bobo?
    A clown blown up punching bag
  32. Emulation
    Copying the behavior without thinking about it. Cognitive process isn’t necessarily there.
  33. observational conditioning
    Could cause types of phobias
  34. contagion
    Seeing someone yawn, and makes other people yawn
  35. stimulus enhancement
    Something about the environment that more than one person is interested in. E.g. you go out and point up at a comet, other people around you begin to point at the sky. They are just reacting to the “thing” thats there but nothing cognitively challenging.
  36. Social transmission
    Observer learns something through experiences involving other agents
  37. social conformity, what they are; are they good or bad, likely role of media
    • A tendency to adopt the behaviors of the group. It enables adaptive behaviors to spread rapidly through a set of conspecifics. It can also impair learning of novel solutions.
    • The National Institute of Mental Health’s conclusion about repeated exposure to media violence
    • That it may decrease sensitivity and increase aggressive behavior.
  38. Mirror Neurons: what they are, what they do, who has them, how do we know they exist
    Recordings from awake primates have revealed neurons that fire for both watching AND doing an action.
  39. ASD?
    Some Autism Spectrum Disorder patients show a brain abnormality of slower activation of mirror neuron networks while imitating facial expressions.
  40. Why is it useful to understand the development of learning and memory?
    It helps teachers place appropriate demands on students, and it helps us understand normal brain development and opens possibilities for extending/improving function across the life span.
  41. Do infants retain memories?
    Yes, memories can be retained for days with no reminders, and for weeks with reminders.
  42. Infant instrumental conditioning findings
    Babies had a ribbon tied around their ankle, and learned that every time they kicked their legs, it moved the mobile. Findings showed that babies learned quickly and lead to vigorous leg kicking.
  43. Elicited imitation paradigm
    A study was down with 10 month old children. Some children were shown a toy puppet and demonstrated how to operate it. Other children were just shown the toy puppet with no demonstration. 4 months later both sets of children were shown the toy puppet and the ones that were shown how to operate it were more interested in it and able to use it.
  44. Do infants have episodic memories?
    Not really. Their episodic memory is barely developing and is doing so very slowly. Infants that were involved in a study rarely remembered having been part of the study.
  45. Know that the development of working memory and central executive function during Adolescence is strong
    Digit span increases, executive function continues to develop, development of frontal lobes, increasing familiarity leads to better encoding
  46. When does memory decline begin in adulthood?
    In their 30’s
  47. Decline in working memory and skill memory; semantic and episodic memory
    Working memory is one of the first to show decline, and skill memory declines rapidly after.
  48. How do seniors compensate?
    Even though senior’s basic skills decline, they compensate by having more skills and experiences to draw from.
  49. How much overall loss of brain matter occurs by age 80?
    Up to 5% of total weight. It happens unevenly across the brain areas and correlates with skill decline
  50. Alzheimer’s Disease – what is it; how does it progress; what are the Hallmarks of AD?
    It’s a progressive cognitive decline from accumulating brain deterioration, where 50% of people over the age 85 are afflicted. Progression: Starts in episodic memory such as forgetting you had recent visitors. Later declines in semantic memory like forgetting names and locations. Next is conditioning and skill deterioration. Finally the late stages are lack of awareness and daily living skills.
  51. Define learning; memory
    The record of our past experiences, which are acquired through learning. (Things you do almost automatically because you do it so often and it’s in your memory)
  52. Associationism
    • Vital for memory/learning. Aristotle’s proposition that ideas are built by rules of association. These rules are:
    • Contiguity-Experiences near each other in time/space are joined together. One stimuli is extinguished when only 1 of the 2 stimuli is presented.
    • Frequency- Experiences often repeated are connected more strongly with a characteristic learning curve.
    • Similarity- Experiences similar to one another are connected. They could generalize to something similar.
  53. Reflex Arc
    Descartes believed that spirits slow through the body to produce movement in the body.
  54. Edward Tolman and cognitive map
    The cognitive map was a mental layout of a maze that rats would run through to get food. Tolman believed that there was something between stimulus response: 1) rat wants something (food) 2) Rat has cognitive map.
  55. hippocampus
    AKA “seahorse”, important for learning new info.
  56. amygdala
    AKA “the almond”, emotional memories (especially fear and aggression.
  57. thalamus
    Receives sensory info (5 senses) from PNS and relays sensory information to other parts of the brain.
  58. Habituation-
    A decrease in the strength or occurrence of a behavior due to repeated exposure to the stimulus that produces the behavior. (Loud noise scares you at first, if played you get used to a little, then a little more, etc.)
  59. Thorndike’s law of effect?
    We will do things more often that give us pleasure.
  60. Generalization
    Transferring past experiences to new situations. Can be helpful to avoid bad things, but can be harmful by not allowing you to try new things that could be good for you.

    • Discrimination
    • The perception of differences between stimuli
  61. Differences between declarative and nondeclarative memories
    Declarative memories can be broken down into: Episodic and semantic. Non-declarative is learning to do something.
  62. Episodic
    Specific autobiographical events (first kiss).
  63. Semantic memory
    Facts, acquired knowledge (state capital).

    • Practice: Massed vs. Spaced – differences, effectiveness
    • Practice can be spread out in time (spaced) or crammed together (massed). Spaced practice is much more effective.
Card Set
Psyc 362 Final
362 final