Neuro Unit 3 Speech Perception and Production

  1. Speech perception is the ability to understand ___ language at the earliest stage. The listener maps acoustic speech signals onto a set of linguistic representations. Linguistic representations are consonants and vowels, otherwise known as ___ ___.
    • Spoken
    • Phonetic segments
  2. Subcortical processing in speech perception
    Explain the process of speech perception (parts of the sub cortex involved).

    Speech is then analyzed for (6):
    Which one of these is most important?
    The cochlea transduces sound to the brainstem-->cochlear nuclei-->superior olivary nucleus-->inferior colliculus-->thalamus (medial geniculate nucleus)-->auditory cortex-->Wernicke's

    • Location, frequency, transitions, intensity, onset/termination
    • Onset/termination
  3. Cortical processing
    Auditory information from the thalamus projects to areas 41&42 (the ___ ___), and is then transmitted area 22 (___ ___). 

    Damage to Wernicke's results in:
    • primary auditory cortex
    • Wernicke's

    difficulty with speech perception
  4. The ___ integrates different components of the speech signal.
    The ___ is involved with the timing & coordination of speech sounds. 
    Prosody (intonation, pitch, tone) is handled by which hemisphere?
    • Insula
    • cerebellum
    • RH
  5. What is Central (cortical) Deafness?
    Where is the damage?
    • No awareness at all of auditory stimuli 
    • Intact hearing mechanism
    • Can turn to source of tone, but don't know if it's there because of lack of awareness 
    • Bilateral damage to auditory cortex (areas 41&42)
  6. What is Auditory Sound Agnosia?
    Where is the damage?
    • Person is unable to recognize/identify nonverbal stimuli (sirens)
    • DO have awareness; can hear, but can't identify
    • Bilateral Damage to auditory association cortex (22&37)
  7. What is Pure Word Deafness?
    Where is the damage?
    What is the difference between this and Wernicke's aphasia?
    • CONVERSE of auditory sound agnosia
    • Speech perception is impaired in context of good speech production, reading, and writing, and nonverbal stimuli
    • CANNOT recognize VERBAL stimuli (marked difficulty in what is being said to them-understanding)
    • Can read, write, and distinguish familiar voices
    • Unilateral OR bilateral damage to the auditory cortex OR subcortical lesion that severed connection to Wernicke's 
    • *In Wernicke's aphasia, there is difficulty w/ reading comprehension and writing; in pure word deafness, comprehension and writing is intact
  8. What is phonagnosia?
    Where is the damage?
    • Difficulty recognizing familiar voices
    • Speech comprehension is intact
    • Able to recognize nonverbal stimuli 
    • Unilateral damage to the inferior parietal lobe (usually in the RH)
  9. Speech Production
    Cognitive-Linguistic Processes: 
    Motor speech programming:
    Neuromuscular execution:
    Which two together are the motor speech processes?
    • Intent-->linguistic rules
    • Planning/organizing verbal message for motor execution(selection/activation of programs that will activate speech muscles)
    • Nervous system executes; Speech motor program is executed by innervating the respiratory, phonatory, resonatory, and articulatory muscles
    • *Motor speech programming & neuromuscular execution
  10. Cortical components in motor speech
    The ____ area uses sensory info to organize and guide speech motor behavior; receives info from the frontal lobe, somatosensory cortex, sends info to supplementary motor area and primary motor. Broca's area is part of this. 

    The ____ ___ area is involved in initiation of speech and control of rhythm, phonation, and articulation. Receives info from many areas and sends info back to those areas & between the cerebellum & basal ganglia. 

    Lesion to the premotor:
    • Premotor
    • Supplementary
    • *The supra marginal gyrus and somatosensory cortex also involved in motor speech planning & programming. 

    Incoordination of jaw, tongue, lips, speech and swallowing
  11. Basal ganglia and cerebellar control circuits
    Basal ganglia control circuit regulates _____.
    Cerebellar control circuit coordinates the execution of ___, ___ muscle movements.
    • Automatic activities (like chewing)
    • smooth, coordinated (regulates speech movements)
    • *Remember BG inhibits unwanted movements and facilities wanted movements
  12. Explain the process of cortical components in speech production:
    • Premotor-->supplementary motor-->supramarginal gyrus-->somatosensory cortex-->primary motor cortex
    • *Before motor cortex, sends info to brainstem, info sent to BG and cerebellum, BG/Cerebellum send info back to primary motor cortex
  13. What are other influences in speech production?
    Reflexes and automaticity:
    Limbic system and right hemisphere(carry out program in conjunction with LH):
    • Proprioceptive feedback about muscle activity (motor speech control, numbness from dentist)
    • Noncortical, reflex-like pathways are involved in programming and executing speech movements
    • Contributes to programs that produce emotional meanings conveyed in speech (variations of pitch, loudness, duration)
  14. Damage to the UMN or its axon will results in:
    1. Loss or reduction of ___ movements
    2. ___ (tightness/stiffness of muscles)
    3. ___ (hyperactive reflexes, like gag reflex)
    4. ___ reflexes (Babinski's sign)
    • Voluntary
    • Spasticity
    • Hyperreflexia
    • Abnormal
  15. Damage to the LMN or its axon will result in:
    1. Muscle weakness (___)
    2. Muscle ____
    3. Decreased muscle ___
    4. Decreased ___ reflexes
    5. Muscle ____
    • Paresis
    • atrophy
    • tone
    • stretch
    • fasciculations
  16. Name the dysarthria:
    -LMN damage (weakness, imprecise artic, breathy and hypernasal vocal quality)
    Flaccid dysarthria
  17. Name the dysarthria:
    Bilateral UMN (spasticity, poor artic, strained voice, low pitch)
    Spastic dysarthria
  18. Name the dysarthria:
    Cerebellar control circuit (incoordination, irregular, slurrying, jerky speech)
    Ataxic dysarthria
  19. Name the dysarthria:
    Basal ganglia control circuit (substantia nigra) (rigidity, reduced ROM, weak vocal intensity, rushes of speech)
    Hypokinetic dysarthria
  20. Name the dysarthria:
    BG control circuit (striatum) (involuntary movement, irregularity in pitch, loudess, frequent stops of speech)
    Hyperkinetic dysarthria
  21. Name the dysarthria
    More than one (UMN & LMN) (mix of __ and __)
    • Mixed dysarthria
    • Mix of spastic and flaccid dysarthria (ALS)
  22. Name the speech disorder:
    Premotor area, supplementary motor area, insular cortex (motor programming & sequencing, frequent repetition, difficulty selecting individual phonemes, consistent speech errors)
    Apraxia of speech
Card Set
Neuro Unit 3 Speech Perception and Production
Overview of speech perception and production