Chem133 Chapter18

  1. Define Ka
    Image Upload 1
  2. Define the p scale.
    • Image Upload 2
    • Image Upload 3
    • Image Upload 4
  3. Relate pKw, pH, and pOH:
    • Image Upload 5
    • Image Upload 6
    • pKw=pH+pOH=14
  4. Define Kw
    Image Upload 7
  5. Define Kb
    Image Upload 8
  6. Find Ka given Kb or vice versa
    Image Upload 9
  7. Periodic trends in acid strength
    • Stronger across a period because higher electronegativity of the central atom holds the electron of the H atom more tightly.
    • Stronger down a period because bond length gets longer, so bond strength gets weaker.
  8. What is pKw?
    Image Upload 10
  9. what happens when a small highly positive metal ion is in water?
    • Because water is a polar molecule, the negative pole of water (O) is attracted to the (+) charge of the metal. - Hydration
    • If the positive charge is great enough (2+ or 3+ typically) then it attracts enough electron density to break an O-H bond in the water.
    • This leaves the metal hydrated with one less water molecule, replaced by a hydroxide (OH-) molecule
    • The H that broke off combines with a water molecule that isn't hydrating the metal ion forming hydronium (H3O+
    • Since there's a higher concentration of H3O+ than earlier, the solution becomes more acidic.
  10. What are the differences among the three types of acid-base reaction definitions?
    • Arrhenius: it is the formation of H2O from H+ and OH-
    • Bronsted & Lowry: It is the H+ transfer from a stronger acid to a stronger base to form a weaker base and weaker acid.
    • Lewis: it is the donation and acceptance of an electron pair to form a covalent bond in an adduct.
    • -A Lewis base must have a lone pair of electrons to donate
    • -a Lewis acid must have a vacant orbital (or the ability to rearrange it's orbitals to form one)to accept a lone pair and form a new bond.
Card Set
Chem133 Chapter18