1. list 6 factors related to the application of research for ergogenic aids:
    • testing specificity
    • task specificity
    • subjects
    • dosage
    • acute versus chronic use
    • statistical significane
  2. a belief that a substance will improve performance which causes the improvement, not the substance itself is called:
    placebo effect
  3. a "look- alike" substance or treatment that has no physiological effect is called:

    • must be included in research to avoid placebo effect
    • includes researcher bias regarding substace effectiveness
  4. neither researchers nor the subjects know who received placebo & who receives the substance:
    double blind research design
  5. any means by which total blood volume or red blood cell mass is increased above normal is called:
    blood doping

    • improves endurance performance
    • banned from Olympic games in 1984
    • effectiveness depends on amount, timing & storage
  6. the original method of blood doping involved infusion of red blood cells with the goal of increasing red blood cell #'s.. list 2 ways this was accomplished:
    • autologous transfusion
    • red blood cells previously withdrawn from the same person were infused

    • homologous transfusion
    • red blood cells obtained from someone else infused
    • has risk of blood type mismatch & infection
  7. list the 3 types of oxygen delivery aids:
    • blood doping
    • erthropoietin
    • oxygen supplementation
  8. a naturally occurring hormone that stimulates red blood cell production by bone marrow is called:
    erythropoietin (EPO)

    • recombinant form used as ergongenic aid to increase endurance
    • banned by IOC (intn'l Olympic committee) in 1990
    • also shown to cause many adverse affects & even death
  9. erythropoietin is shown to increase which 3 things:
    • VO2peak
    • time to exhaustion
    • hemoglobin & hematocrit
  10. increasing the oxygen content or barometric pressure of inspired air is called:
    oxygen supplementation

    • administer just before, during, or just after a work bout
    • shown to increase performance when given during a bout
    • aids in recovery when given after a bout
  11. oxygen supplementation results in an increase in which 3 things:
    • partial pressure of oxygen
    • oxygen carried by blood (potentially)
    • amount of oxygen available for metabolism
  12. list 4 oxygen delivery aids that are in development:
    • hematide
    • gene doping
    • blood oxygen enhancers
    • modulators of hemoglobin
  13. an increase in acidity depends not just on the production of acids, but also on buffering systems called:
    blood buffers

    • extreme exercise decreases blood pH  (increase in acidity)
    • blood buffers help to maintain stable pH & thus delay fatigue
  14. list 4 buffers that may delay fatigue:
    • sodium bicarbonate
    • inorganic phosphate
    • histidine
    • carnosine
  15. list and describe the 2 properties of steroids:

    what is the fxn of steroids:
    • androgenic: secondary sex characteristics
    • anabolic: to build growth
    • fxn: dramatically enhance strength, power, and muscle size
  16. list the negative effects of synthetic androgen use:

    in men:
    in women:
    • liver damage
    • jaundice
    • fluid rentetion
    • increase LDL
    • decrease HDL

    • in men: shrinking of the testicles, decreased sperm count, infertility, baldness, development of breasts, increased risk of prostate cancer
    • in women: facial hair, baldness, changes in menstrual cycle, enlargement of clitoris, deepen voice
  17. this steroid has become the anabolic drug of choice among athetles:
    • HGH human growth hormone
    • initially, not detected by drug tests, now can be detected
    • effectiveness as ergogenic aid is questionable
  18. what are the 5 side effects of human growth hormone:
    • acromegaly: disease of abnormal bone growth & gigantism
    • hypoglycemia: low blood glucose
    • belly distension due to internal organ growth
    • carpal tunnel syndrome
    • joint pain
  19. athletes use this drug in an attempt to improve body composition or performance based on its growth-promoting properties:

    what are the side effects of this hormone:
    • insulin
    • effectiveness as drug is questionable

    • side effects
    • long term hypoglycemia
    • death
    • brain damage
  20. this hormone has been thought to be an ergogenic aid based on its known role in muscle tissue anabolism:
    • insulin-like growth factors
    • little evidence supports their effectiveness
  21. list and describe the 3 categories of oral contraceptives:
    • monophasic: holds hormone levels constant
    • biphasic: not commonly used
    • triphasic: hormone levels vary based on 3 different doses of estrogen
  22. what are the general effects of oral contraceptives:

    what are the effects of triphasic contraptives:
    • general
    • water retention
    • weight gain
    • increases in core temp
    • glycogen- sparing effect

    • triphasic
    • incrase in fat mass
    • decrease in aerobic fitness
  23. naturally occurring steroid precursors eventually converted by various enzymes to testosterone are called:
    • prohormones
    • assumed by many to have ergogenic effects
  24. list and describe 2 prohormones:

    • marketed as a ergogenic aid increasing muscle mas & strength
    • no evidence of effectiveness shown in studies

    • androstenedione
    • popular supplement; used by baseball player mark mcgwire
    • no evidence of its efficacy in studies
  25. a drug that stimulates the central nervous system by increasing dopamine release and mimicking the effects of catecholamines is called:
    • amphetamines
    • known as: speed or "pep" pills
  26. list the physiological effects of amphetamines:
    • increased
    • blood pressure
    • HR
    • metabolic rate
    • plasma free fatty acid concentration
  27. list the 4 ways amphetamines have been thought to increase performance:
    • increasing
    • alertness
    • self-confidence
    • muscle force
    • capacity to work

    • has been shown to increase performance in many cases
    • much individual variability
    • dangerous side effects
  28. a sympathomimetic amine drug and central nervous stimulant  that can be found in cold or cough medications and herbal teas is called:

    what is this drug used for:

    • used for
    • weight loss to curb appetite
    • increase metabolic rate

    shown to increase body weight loss in obese people
  29. what do studies of ephedrine show:

    what are the side effects of ephedrine:
    • studies show
    • increase in power &/or local muscular endurance capabilities
    • increased endurance performance

    • side effects
    • headache
    • agitation
    • GI distress
Card Set
ergogenics in exercise and sport