Chapter 5 The Industrial Revolution Begins 1750-1850

  1. anesthetic
    drug that prevents pain during surgery
  2. enclosure
    the process by taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers.
  3. Who is James Watt
    a scottish engineer looked at Newcomen's invention in 1764 and set out to make improvements on the engine in order to make it more efficient.
  4. capital
    money used to invest in enterprises
  5. entrepreneurs
    those who managed and assumed the financial risks of starting a new business.
  6. what is a putting out system?
    cotton industry, in which raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their homes.
  7. what is a turnpike?
    private roads built by entrepreneurs who charged travelers a toll, or a fee to use them.
  8. Where was the world's first major rail line?
    From Liverpool to Manchester - it opened in England in 1830
  9. What is urbanization?
    the movement of people to cities.
  10. what caused urbanization?
    changes in farming, soaring population growth, and an ever increasing demand for worker led masses of people to migrate from farms to cities. Overnight small towns around coal and iron mines mushroomed into cities
  11. labor unions
    workers organizations were illegal at this time, secret unions did exist among frustrated British workers.
  12. tenements
    multistory buildings divided into apartments. They had no running water only community pumps
  13. what led to cholera?
    there was no sewage or sanitation system so wastes and garbage rotted in the streets. Sewage was also dumped into rivers, which created an overwhelming stench and contaminated drinking water.
  14. who is Thomas Malthus
    British economist saw the effects of the population explosion - crowded slums, hungry families, unemployment, and widespread misery.
  15. who wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population?
    Thomas Malthus
  16. who said, "the power of population is far greater than the power of the Earth to produce subsistence for man."
    Thomas Malthus
Card Set
Chapter 5 The Industrial Revolution Begins 1750-1850
Grade 10 History