Adult Health GI

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  1. Painful ulcerations (canker sores) appear as inflammation and erosion of protective lining of mouth
  2. Most common form of stomatitis and caused by aphthous (nonifectious), herpes simplex, traumatic
    Primary stomatitis
  3. Form of stomatitis that results from viruses, fungi and bacteria such as Candida albicans
    Secondary stomatitis
  4. Hyperactive bowel sounds may be found with what conditions?
    • gastroenteritis
    • pyloric obstruction
    • diarrhea
  5. Absent bowel sounds can be indicative of what conditions?
    • Peritonitis
    • ileus
    • obstruction
  6. Stool of a patient with upper gi bleed or high iron content appears
    dark, tarry (Melena)
  7. Stool of a patient with lower GI bleed appears
    Bright red d/t close proximity to rectum- not digested
  8. stool of patient with billiary obstruction
    Clay colored
  9. Emesis from pt w/retained (partially digested) blood in stomach
    Coffee ground emesis
  10. Emesis that has presence of bile
  11. stool of pt recently had barium contrast or biliary obstruction
    white/gray glistening
  12. stools with increased fat content
    bulky,greasy,foamy,gray colored

    steatorrhea-fatty stool
  13. Diagnostic test that visualizes esophagus, stomach, duodenum and upper jejunum
    UGI Tract study

    • Swallow barium
    • npo 6hrs
    • laxative after to eliminate barium

  14. Xray of large intestines
    Barium enema

    • Contrast
    • Bowel prep w/laxatives and enemas
    • restrict dairy and follow liquid 24 hrs prior
    • NPO 8hrs prior to test
    • Laxative to remove

    ****If UGI and barium enama ordered, enema done first
  15. Invasive test that puncture incision at belly button and CO2 used to inflate abdomen for better visualization

    • NPO
    • No prep unless ordered by MD
    • Bandaids/steris

    May have increased cramping, gas, chest pains after d/t CO2
  16. Diag test that visualizes esophagus, gastric, and duodenal mucosa
    Esophagogastroduodensoscopy (EGD)

    Used to identify source of upper GI bleed, gastric malignancies and diff types of ulcers
  17. Nursing interventions for EGD
    • NPO for 8 hrs
    • Pressure or fullness if CO2 used
    • Conscious sedation
    • Vital signs
    • Ck gag reflex
    • throat lozenges, saline gargles
    • Watch for aspiration, perforation, bleeding
  18. Diagnostic test that examines liver, gallbladder, pancreatic and biliary ducts
    Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

    • May be used to release gallstones
    • Care similar to EGD
  19. What must nurse watch for with ERCP test?
    S/S of pancreatitis

    • Severe epigastric pain radiating to back
    • Fever
    • leukocytosis
    • N/V
    • Cullen's
    • Turner's
    • Elevated Amylase and Lipase
  20. Visualization of anus, rectum, distal sigmoid colon
    • Sigmoidoscopy-less $$$ than colonoscopy
    • Sedation not necessary

    • For polyps and tumors
    • pretest procedures vary
    • fleets/cleansing enemas

    Watch for distention, tenderness, bleeding
  21. Examination of entire colon

    • Diagnostic for colorectal cancer
    • Bowel prep (Golytely)
    • clear liquids
    • laxative and enemas
    • NPO 8 hrs
    • Sedation

    Monitor VS, report bleeding, fever and pain
  22. What must a nurse assess for when CT called for?

    What type of study must be conducted 4 days prior to CT or done after CT scan
    Allergies to iodine, seafood

    Barium studies
  23. When is a MRI contraindicated?
    • Pacemaker
    • Heart valves
    • internal metal clips
    • implanted pumps

    Cardiac stents are ok
  24. What type of fluid imbalance may occur with hyperosmolar tube feeding that are not diluted properly?
    Cellular dehydration may occur as fluid is pulled from intra to extracellular fluid

    make sure pt gets enough free H2O to prevent
  25. How often is intermittent bolus tube feeding?
    q4-6hrs by gravity
  26. how is a continuous tube feeding administered?
    by pump
  27. How often is a cyclic tube feedings given and when?
    8-10 hrs overnight if unable to meet caloric needs
  28. Intermittent hold if residual
    >100-150 ml
  29. continuous hold if residual is
    2 times amount over last hour
  30. Routes of tube feeding delivery
    • nasogastric
    • Gtube
    • Jtube
  31. Fisk factors of Obesity
    • Genetic
    • Physical inactivity #1
    • environmental-fast foods, high fat, high chole
    • Psychological factors-low self esteem, abuse
  32. Drugs that can promote obesity
    • corticosteroids
    • estrogen
    • nsaids
    • antihypertensive
    • antiepileptic
    • certain oral antidiabetic
  33. BMI of ____________=obesity
    > 30
  34. BMI of ____________=morbidly obese
Card Set
Adult Health GI
GI medsurg Adult Health
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