PSY 336 Exam 4

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  1. Can money buy happiness?
    It can for people with less than $10,000/year

    Above $10,000 there is no correlation
  2. Boredom

    What is it?
    What is the opposite of boredom?
    • Definition: Discrepancy between present circumstances and some other more appealing circumstances which force themselves irresistibly upon the imagination
    • One's faculties must not be fully occupied

    • Opposite: Excitement
    • Too little = produce morbid cravings
    • Too much = produce exhaustion
  3. Envy

    Why does Russel think envy is so unfortunate?
    • Large part in evoking unhappiness among average women
    • Women = all other women are competitors
    • Men = Only other men within the same profession are competitors

    Instead of being happy with what you have, you feel pain from what others have
  4. Thinking in terms of comparisons
    When anything pleasant occurs it should be enjoyed to the fullest, without stopping to think that it is not so pleasant as something else that many possibly be happening to someone else

    Cure: Mental discipline - the habit of not thinking profitless thoughts
  5. Seligman's 3
    • Pleasure
    • Things that feel good
    • Weakest contributor to happiness

    • Involvement
    • Being immersed in things like family, work, and hobbies
    • Companionship

    • Meaning
    • Using personal strengths to serve a larger end; belief in a cause
  6. Modest estimate of one's own powers - understanding/being aware of your "place" in life
    • "Unnecessary modesty" has a great deal to do with envy
    • Modest people need a great deal of reassuring and tend to not attempt tasks which are capable
    • Believe to be outshone by those with whom they habitually associate
    • Modest people then are particularly pron to envy, and thus happiness
  7. Companionships
    Associated with Involvement of the 3 components of happiness
  8. Absorption in a hobby
    • Not a source of fundamental happiness but still good to do!
    • Means of escape from reality
  9. Friendly interest in persons and things
    • Form of affectionateness - likes to observe people and finds pleasure in their individual traits
    • Must be genuine - must not spring from an idea of self-sacrifice inspired by a sense of duty

    • Best type of affection = reciprocally life-giving - each receives affection with joy and gives it without effort
    • Affection of parents = greatest source of happiness
    • Most reliable than any other affection
  10. Belief in a cause
    Associated with Meaning in 3 components of happiness
  11. Temperament and happiness

    What personality traits tend to be correlated with happiness
    • Extraversion (sociability) positively associated with happiness
    • Neuroticism (emotionality) negatively associated with happiness
  12. Does happiness decline with age?

    Do young people think it does?

    Does this affect their current behavior?
    • Does happiness decline with age?
    • No

    • Do young people think it does?
    • Yes

    • Does this affect their current behavior?
    • Young male binge drinkers are particularly prone to thinking that happiness declined with age.
  13. Rage attacks - association with brain damage

    Lewis et al. (1981) series of studies - results and conclusions
    • Delinquents vs. Non-delinquents
    • Delinquents had significantly more hospital visits, accidents, and injuries

    • Imprisoned delinquents vs. Other delinquents
    • 62.3% incarcerated had severe face or head injuries - 44.6% not incarcerated

    • 98.6% violent have 1 neurological abnormality, 66.7% less violent
    • 75% violents had head injuries as children, serious and extensive medical problems, and beaten by parents - 33% less violent
  14. Brain areas/mechanisms thought to be involved with anger
    • Hypothalamus
    • Controls hormones, autonomic processes, and various emotional responses

    • Amygdala
    • Associated with fear and anger
    • When amygdalas are electrically stimulated
    • Previously violent patients become violent
    • Previously nonviolent patients did not become violent
  15. Not all brain damaged people are subject to rage attacks - why?

    Such thing as a rage circuit?

    Distinguish between people who suffer brain damage/disease and who suffer from "life"
    • 10/2,000 cases had "rage attacks from head trauma
    • Limbic system not only origin of anger, rage, and aggression

    No such thing as a "rage circuit"

    A juvenile delinquent may be neurologically impaired or violence may be the only world he/she knows
  16. What 4 domains of temperament have a strong genetic component?
    • Emotionality → intensity of reaction
    • Sociability → strong desire to be with others
    • Level of activity → total energy output
    • Impulsivity → tendency to respond to events immediately without inhibiting one's feelings
  17. How do genes determine temperament - single genes, multiple genes, etc.?
    • No "single-gene" for a given temperamental aspect
    • Any inherited predispositions are more diffuse and generalized than those of lower animals

    Genes provide us with a reaction range and environmental events determine where in the range and individual will fall
  18. Epinephrine

    Role this hormone has in fear, anger, and other emotions
    • Energy behind our emotional states
    • Act on all organs of the sympathetic nervous system
    • Help brain to learn
    • At its lowest = familiar task (ex: playing guitar; cooking)
  19. Role of appraisal (appraisal of specific events and general ways of thinking) in anger and mixed emotions
    • Anger (in others) that is motivated by personal gain deserved retaliation and punishment
    • Anger expressed for unselfish motives or due to pain does not deserve retaliation and punishments
  20. Do we feel anger in isolation? What other emotions do people typically feel along with anger?
    • Anxious and depressed when angry
    • Afraid they are angry, angry they are afraid
  21. People who feel emotions intensely more than others think in similar ways

    What are these 3 typical ways of thinking?

    Why is this important for the part of the chapter regarding appraisal and emotions?
    • Personalize events
    • Pay selective attention
    • Overgeneralize

    • Psychological factors involved in anger range from immediate perceptions of an event to more general/typical ways of thinking about life
    • Our emotions cannot be separated from our mental lives
  22. HPA axis

    Understand this biological process step-by-step, how it's regulated, and what the process is for
    Effects of chronic stress on brain tissue and the HPA system
    • Step-by-step
    • CRH released into blood by hypothalamus
    • ACTH released by anterior pituitary gland
    • Cortisol (glucocorticoid) release by adrenal glands in response to ACTH

    • Regulation
    • Amygdala stimulate HPA
    • Hippocampus inhibits HPA

    What the process is for

    • Effects of Chronic Stress
    • Hippocampal neurons wither and die
  23. Is the way we handle anger connected to the ability to reduce stress?
    • "Anger-in" vs. "Anger-out"
    • "Anger-in" style through to be associated with suppressed hostility
    • Anger-in-causes-stress NOT SUPPORTED
  24. What were the results/conclusion of the "anger-in" vs. "anger-out" study?
    • "Anger-in" vs. "Anger-out"
    • "Anger-in" style through to be associated with suppressed hostility
    • Anger-in-causes-stress NOT SUPPORTED
  25. Is there a relationship between anger and high blood pressure? Anger and hypertension? Understand these dynamic relationships.
    • Depends on age, race, sex, social class, and the reason you feel angry
    • By suppressing anger, hypertensive keep their blood pressure elevated
    • Release the anger and blood pressure should fall
  26. Is temperament related to cardiovascular problems? Why?
    Animals who showed strong negative reactions develop high rates of coronary artery disease
  27. Acute stress and cardiovascular disease
    • Acute stress can cause...
    • Constriction of coronary arteries
    • Arrhythmia in heartbeat
    • Stimulation of platelet function (clot formation)
    • Increased viscosity of the blood
  28. How exactly does stress increase a person's susceptibility to infectious diseases?
    • Decreased production of IgA (mediated by glucocorticoids)
    • IgA is first defense against infectious microorganisms that enter nose or mouth
    • IgA associated with mood
    • When unhappy or depressed, IgA levels lower than normal
  29. Dynamic relationship between Type A personality, anger, and heart disease

    Social isolation and hostility
    Is the reason why we're angry important
    • Dynamic relationship between Type A personality, anger, and heart disease
    • Type A is a risk factor but most never get coronary heart disease and some Type Bs do

    • Social isolation and hostility
    • Hostility increases atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease by as much as 5 times over normal
    • Neurotic hostility (grumpy) ⇨ no evidence it can kill you
    • Antagonistic hostility (more aggressive) ⇨ may contribute to illness for pumping up blood pressure and keeps people at a distance.
    • Anger
    • If it feels like we are not in control, Type A prone to coronary heart disease
  30. Deciding when to express anger depends on what 2 factors?
  31. Myth 1: What did Hokanson find/conclude about catharsis habits?
    • Aggressive catharsis is a learned reaction to anger, not an instinctive one
    • Whatever works will feel good because it brings a removal of the threat and a sense of relaxation (requirements of one's role)
  32. Myth 1: Is aggression usually cathartic?
    • Aggression cathartic in men
    • Aggression can be cathartic only against your peers and subordinates
    • Not if target is an authority figure or an innocent bystander
    • For men, aggression is cathartic
    • For women, friendliness is cathartic
  33. Myth 1: Aggression and couples fighting
    • Couples who yell at each other do not feel less angry but more angry after
    • If couple does not deal with what's causing anger, it will remain, or worsen
  34. Myth 1: Verbal aggression vs. reporting one's anger
    Use "I" instead of "you"

    • Ex: I just don't like it when you do that. (Yes)
    • You are so annoying (No)
  35. Myth 2: Talking it out makes you less angry
    • Talking out an emotion rehearses it
    • Anger socially created
    • Talking can freeze hostile disposition
    • Must find our own compromise between talking too much, expressing every little thing that irritates and not talking at all
  36. Myth 3: At what age do tantrums usually begin to appear?
    First appear in 2nd year lasting for a year
  37. Myth 3: How can parenting affect them?
    The kind of anger they attend to in their children is the kind of anger they will have to live with
  38. Myth 3: A child's anger is thought to have a social purpose - how so?
    • Human survival depends on attachment to others
    • Distress differentiates into sadness, anxiety, or anger by 2 years old
  39. Myth 3: Form vs. content of children's anger
    • Expressing anger is not the same as acting aggressively
    • When you allow a child to have a tantrum, you are not reducing anger
    • Increasing aggressiveness
    • Teaching cathartic habit
    • Attending to form of anger, while ignoring legitimate cause
  40. Under what conditions will expressing anger produce beneficial effects
    • Anger must be directed at target of yours anger
    • Anger must restore sense of control
    • Feel good because you accomplished a social goal
    • Perceive some equity between severity of other person's alleged offense and retaliation
    • Must change behavior of target or give new insight
    • You and target must speak same anger language
    • No angry retaliation from target
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PSY 336 Exam 4
Last test of the class
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