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Community Oriented Policing and Problem Solving
Describe the position of a COPPS Deputy
1.) identifies and resolves problems of both a criminal and non-criminal nature
2.) uniformed gang suppression
3.) perform investigative services
4.) provide patrol support
5.) coordinate municipal and departmental resources
6.) look for opportunities to problem solve through an understanding of the crime prevention model, and by utilizing a variety of enforcement strategies
What are the duties of a COPPS deputy?
1.) establish relationships with the area constituency
2.) conduct community presentations
3.) liaison with the public, schools, clubs, organizations, business groups, and other law enforcement agencies or units
4.) conduct graffiti investigations
5.) alcohol and tobacco-related investigations
6.) vice investigations
7.) 290 PC compliance investigations
What are the core values?
Honesty, Integrity, Trust, Loyalty, Fairness, Respect, Diversity (HITLFRD)
What is the Sheriff Department mission statement?
We provide the highest quality public safety service in an effort to make San Diego the safest urban county in the nation.
What is the definition of Community Policing?
Community Policing is a philosophy, management style, and organizational design that promotes proactive problem-solving and police-community partnerships to address the causes of crime and fear as well as other community issues.
Problem-solving refers to a process of...
...identifying problems and priorities through coordinated community/police needs assessments; collecting and analyzing information concerning the problem in a thorough, though not necessarily complicated, manner; developing or facilitating responses that are innovative and tailor-made with the best potential for eliminating or reducing the problem and, finally, evaluating the response to determine its effectiveness and modifying it as necessary.
The COPPS philosophy...
...reassesses who is responsible for public safety and redefines the roles and relationships between the police and the community to require shared ownership, shared decision making and shared accountability.
CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
Natural surveillance (CPTED)
increases the threat of apprehension by taking steps to increase the perception that people can be seen. Natural surveillance occurs by designing the placement of physical features, activities and people in such a way as to maximize visibility and foster positive social interaction among legitimate users of private and public space. Potential offenders feel increased scrutiny and limitations on their escape routes.
- · Design streets to increase pedestrian and bicycle traffic
- · Place windows overlooking sidewalks and parking lots.
- · Leave window shades open.
- · Use passing vehicular traffic as a surveillance asset.
- · Create landscape designs that provide surveillance, especially in proximity to designated points of entry and opportunistic points of entry.
- · Use the shortest, least sight-limiting fence appropriate for the situation.
- · Use transparent weather vestibules at building entrances.
- · When creating lighting design, avoid poorly placed lights that create blind-spots for potential observers and miss critical areas. Ensure potential problem areas are well lit: pathways, stairs, entrances/exits, parking areas, ATMs, phone kiosks, mailboxes, bus stops, children's play areas, recreation areas, pools, laundry rooms, storage areas, dumpster and recycling areas, etc.
- · Avoid too-bright security lighting that creates blinding glare and/or deep shadows, hindering the view for potential observers. Eyes adapt to night lighting and have trouble adjusting to severe lighting disparities. Using lower intensity lights often requires more fixtures.
- · Use shielded or cut-off luminaires to control glare.
- · Place lighting along pathways and other pedestrian-use areas at proper heights for lighting the faces of the people in the space (and to identify the faces of potential attackers).
- · Natural surveillance measures can be complemented by mechanical and organizational measures. For example, closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras can be added in areas where window surveillance is unavailable.
Natural Access Control (CPTED)
limits the opportunity for crime by taking steps to clearly differentiate between public space and private space. By selectively placing entrances and exits, fencing, lighting and landscape to limit access or control flow, natural access control occurs.
- · Use a single, clearly identifiable, point of entry
- · Use structures to divert persons to reception areas
- · Incorporate maze entrances in public restrooms. This avoids the isolation that is produced by an anteroom or double door entry system
- · Use low, thorny bushes beneath ground level windows. Use rambling or climbing thorny plants next to fences to discourage intrusion.
- · Eliminate design features that provide access to roofs or upper levels
- · In the front yard, use waist-level, picket-type fencing along residential property lines to control access, encourage surveillance.
- · Use a locking gate between front and backyards.
- · Use shoulder-level, open-type fencing along lateral residential property lines between side yards and extending to between back yards. They should be sufficiently unencumbered with landscaping to promote social interaction between neighbors.
- · Use substantial, high, closed fencing (for example, masonry) between a backyard and a public alley.
- · Natural access control is used to complement mechanical and operational access control measures, such as target hardening.
Natural Territorial Reinforcement (CPTED)
promotes social control through increased definition of space and improved proprietary concern. An environment designed to clearly delineate private space does two things. First, it creates a sense of ownership. Owners have a vested interest and are more likely to challenge intruders or report them to the police. Second, the sense of owned space creates an environment where "strangers" or "intruders" stand out and are more easily identified. By using buildings, fences, pavement, signs, lighting and landscape to express ownership and define public, semi-public and private space, natural territorial reinforcement occurs. Additionally, these objectives can be achieved by assignment of space to designated users in previously unassigned locations.
- · Maintained premises and landscaping such that it communicates an alert and active presence occupying the space.
- · Provide trees in residential areas. Research results indicate that, contrary to traditional views within the law enforcement community, outdoor residential spaces with more trees are seen as significantly more attractive, more safe, and more likely to be used than similar spaces without trees.
- · Restrict private activities to defined private areas.
- · Display security system signage at access points.
- · Avoid cyclone fencing and razor-wire fence topping, as it communicates the absence of a physical presence and a reduced risk of being detected.
- · Placing amenities such as seating or refreshments in common areas in a commercial or institutional setting helps to attract larger numbers of desired users.
- · Scheduling activities in common areas increases proper use, attracts more people and increases the perception that these areas are controlled.
- · Territorial reinforcement measures make the normal user feel safe and make the potential offender aware of a substantial risk of apprehension or scrutiny.
Crime Free Multi Housing:
Phase I - Management Training (8-Hours)
Taught by the Police
- · Crime Prevention Theory
- · CPTED Theory (Physical Security)
- · Benefits of Resident Screening
- · Lease Agreements and Eviction Issues
- · Crime Free Lease Addendum
- · Key Control and Master Key Use
- · On-Going Security Management Monitoring and Responding to Criminal Activity
- · Gangs, Drugs Activity, and Crime Prevention
- · Legal Warnings, Notices & Evictions Working Smarter With the Police Fire and Life Safety Training Community Awareness
Phase II - CPTED - Survey by the Police
- · Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Survey (CPTED)
- · Minimum door, window, and lock standards compliance inspection
- · Minimum exterior lighting standards evaluation
- · Key Control procedures evaluation
- · Landscape maintenance standards compliance
Phase III - Community Awareness Training
- · Annual crime prevention social taught by property management and police
- · Community awareness and continuous participation is encouraged
Scanning, Analysis, Response, Assessment
· Scanning: ID problems and their consequences; prioritize the problems; develop goals to solve the problems
· Analysis: ID data to be collected; research the problem; ID how the problem is currently being addressed and the strengths/weaknesses of the response; ID variety of resources; develop a working hypothesis about why the problem is occurring
· Response: brainstorm for solutions; outline a response; state objectives for the response; carry out the plan
· Assessment: evaluate the response; determine whether goals and objectives were met; ID new strategies if needed; conduct ongoing assessment
Crime Triangle = Offender + Location + Victim. Without one of these elements no crime can occur.
· This is a starting point to the SARA model. This helps to answer the, who, what, when, where, why, and how.
It is unlawful to enter or remain upon any posted property without the written permission of the owner, tenant, or occupant in legal possession or control thereof. Every person who enters or remains upon posted property without such written permission is guilty of a separate offense for each day during any portion of which he enters or remains upon such posted property.
A law enforcement officer may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house, or any part of a house, or anything therein, to executethe warrant, if, after notice of his authority and purpose, he is refused admittance."Knock, announce, state purpose, be refused entry."
Licensee Education on Alcohol and Drugs. LEAD is a training program for alcohol licensee's (Bars, Liquor Stores, Restaurants). The LEAD Program is a free, voluntary prevention and education program for retail licensees, their employees and applicants. It began on January 1, 1991 with a grant from the California Office of Traffic Safety. The mission of the LEAD Program is to provide high quality, effective and educationally sound training on alcohol responsibility and the law to California retail licensees and their employees.
PC 186.22. (a)
Any person who actively participates in any criminal street gang with knowledge that its members engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity, and who willfully promotes, furthers, or assists in any felonious criminal conduct by members of that gang, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for a period not to exceed one year, or by imprisonment in the state prison for 16 months, or two or three years.
Willful disobedience of the terms of any injunction that restrains the activities of a criminal street gang or any of its members, lawfully issued by any court, including an order pending trial. (Gang Injunction Violation)
Give prosecutors the power to move a juvenile case to adult court for serious crimes (14 yrs and up. Murder/sex offenses)
- Convicted gang members must register with law enforcement.
- Toughen punishment on gang related crimes.
Documentation Requirements for Street Gang Members:
The California Department of Justice has set forth ten different criteria which may be used to document a person as a gang member. The Sheriff’s Department adopted five of these ten as the criteria our Department’s Gang Investigators may use to document a subject as a suspected gang member. Those criteria are...
1. The individual admits gang membership.
2. The individual has tattoos, wears or possesses clothing and/or paraphernalia that is only associated with a specified gang or gangs.
3. The individual is arrested participating in delinquent/criminal activity with a known gang member.
4. Police records and/or observations confirm the individuals’ close association with known gang members.
5. Information from a reliable informant identifies the individual as a suspected gang member.
In order for a subject to be initially "documented" as a gang member, we must have at least a total of three of the above criteria met. This can be done in one contact (i.e. subject is arrested with other gang members while wearing a "Vista Homeboys" hat, and has "VHB" tattooed on his wrist) or three separate contacts (i.e. subject is hanging out with "VHB" gang members on each occasion). The only exception to this is an individual that self claims his gang membership to a deputy - that one criteria can be enough to document that person as a gang member.
The below information must be contained with the photograph. This information is critical if the photograph is to be used in a photographic line up or as evidence in a court proceeding. Without it, the investigator is at a loss to use the photograph.
1. Subject’s full name
2. Subject’s DOB
3. Circumstances of photo (arrest, detention, consent, evidence, or investigation). Include related case or F.I. numbers
4. Deputy’s name
5. Deputy’s I.D.#
6. Date of photograph
- G – Gang
- R – Resistance
- E – Education
- A – And
- T - Training
The G.R.E.A.T. Program is...
The G.R.E.A.T. Program is a school-based, law enforcement officer-instructed classroom curriculum. With prevention as its primary objective, the program is intended as an immunization against delinquency, youth violence, and gang membership.
G.R.E.A.T. has developed partnerships with nationally recognized organizations, such as the Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the National Association of Police Athletic Leagues. These partnerships encourage positive relationships among the community, parents, schools, and law enforcement officers.
G.R.E.A.T. lessons focus on providing life skills to students to help them avoid using delinquent behavior and violence to solve problems. The G.R.E.A.T. Program offers a continuum of components for students and their families.
Chronic Intoxications To be Chronics, they have to have...
Chronic Intoxications To be Chronics, they have to have four 647(f) PC arrests in 6 months and are placed onto the chronic intoxicant list by the DA’s Office.
BROKEN WINDOW THOERY...
Philip Zimbardo, a Stanford psychologist, reported in 1969 on some experiments testing the broken-window theory. He arranged to have an automobile without license plates parked with its hood up on a street in the Bronx and a comparable automobile on a street in Palo Alto, California. The car in the Bronx was attacked by "vandals" within ten minutes of its "abandonment." The first to arrive were a family--father, mother, and young son—who removed the radiator and battery. Within twenty-four hours, virtually everything of value had been removed. Then random destruction began--windows were smashed, parts torn off, upholstery ripped. Children began to use the car as a playground. Most of the adult "vandals" were welldressed, apparently clean-cut whites. The car in Palo Alto sat untouched for more than a week. Then Zimbardo smashed part of it with a sledgehammer. Soon, passersby were joining in. Within a few hours, the car had been turned upside down and utterly destroyed. Again, the "vandals" appeared to be primarily respectable whites.Untended property becomes fair game for people out for fun or plunder and even for people who ordinarily would not dream of doing such things and who probably consider themselves law-abiding. Because of the nature of community life in the Bronx--its anonymity, the frequency with which cars are abandoned and things are stolen or broken, the past experience of "no one caring"--vandalism begins much more quickly than it does in staid Palo Alto, where people have come to believe that private possessions are cared for, and that mischievous behavior is costly. But vandalism can occur anywhere once communal barriers--the sense of mutual regard and the obligations of civility--are lowered by actions that seem to signal that "no one cares." We suggest that "untended" behavior also leads to the breakdown of community controls. A stable neighborhood of families who care for their homes, mind each other's children, and confidently frown on unwanted intruders can change, in a few years or even a few months, to an inhospitable and frightening jungle. A piece of property is abandoned, weeds grow up, a window is smashed. Adults stop scolding rowdy children; the children, emboldened, become more rowdy. Families move out, unattached adults move in. Teenagers gather in front of the comer store. The merchant asks them to move; they refuse. Fights occur. Litter accumulates. People start drinking in front of the grocery; in time, an inebriate slumps to the sidewalk and is allowed to sleep it off. Pedestrians are approached by panhandlers. At this point it is not inevitable that serious crime will flourish or violent attacks on strangers will occur. But many residents will think that crime, especially violent crime, is on the rise, and they will modify their behavior accordingly. They will use the streets less often, and when on the streets will stay apart from their fellows, moving with averted eyes, silent lips, and hurried steps. "Don't get involved." For some residents, this growing atomization will matter little, because the neighborhood is not their "home" but "the place where they live." Their interests are elsewhere; they are cosmopolitans. But it will matter greatly to other people, whose lives derive meaning and satisfaction from local attachments rather than worldly involvement; for them, the neighborhood will cease to exist except for a few reliable friends whom they arrange to meet.
What is intelligence-led policing?
1.) A business model for managing policing demand
2.) About improved allocation of resources
3.) A strategic approach to crime and problems
4.) A decision-action model
Intelligence-led policing requires police analysts to interpret the criminal environment; influence decision-makers; and it requires decision-makers to use the crime intelligence to have an impact on the criminal environment.
Above standard oral and written communication skills
Effective interviewing techniques
Adult and juvenile counseling skills
Demonstrated ability to work well independently and in a team setting
Ability to work with other agencies and community groups
Must be highly motivated to initiate all his/her own cases
Ability to handle politically sensitive issues
Ability to work cooperatively with citizen action groups and community organizations
We earn the respect and the confidence of the public as a professional public safety organization. We are innovative and responsive to the needs of those we serve and work in partnership with our communities. We attract and retain highly competent and diverse employees.
STATUS OFFENSES are offenses that only apply to juveniles under 18 (truancy, beyond control, curfew, runaway, underage drinking, possession of alcohol/tobacco). Release to school or parent.
any person under 18 who persistently refuses to obey the reasonable and proper orders or directions of his/her parents, or guardians, or who is beyond the control of that person, or who is under 18 when he/she violated any curfew ordinance may be adjudged to be a ward of the court.
If a minor has 4 or more truancies within one school year and has not followed the corrective action set forth by the school or juvenile courts, the child may be adjudged to be a ward of the court.
CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS (non-status offenses)
Any person under 18 who commits a crime (other than curfew) will be handled in juvenile court
any person 14 years old or older who committed murder or sex crimes shall be prosecuted as an adult
children under 14 are not capable of committing a crime without clear proof that at the time of committing the crime they knew its wrongfulness
SECURE DETENTION is used when the juvenile is....
...14 or older and presents a serious risk of harm to self or others. Juveniles MAY NOT be held for longer than 6 hours. Juveniles must be within sight and sound detention of a deputy. Juveniles MUST be separated from adult prisoners at all times. Status offenders MAY NOT be held in secure detention. Status offenders MAY NOT be handcuffed to a permanent fixture.
What are the 3 parts of a search warrant.
- 1) Warrant
- 2) Affidavit
- 3) Receipt & Inventory
What are 6 elements of an arrest warrant
- 1) Warrant #
- 2) Issuing Court
- 3) Charges
- 4) Judge
- 5) Bail
- 6) Date Issued
Define Search Warrant
A search warrant is an order in writing, in the name of the people, signed by a magistrate/judge, directed to a peace officer commanding him to search for a person, thing, or personal property, and bring it before the magistrate.
What items must appear on a search warrant (1529 & 1533 PC)
- 1) Names of all affiants (deputies)
- 2) Statutory grounds for issuance (charges)
- 3) Description of places & persons to be searched
- 4) Description of the property to be seized
- 5) An indication by the judge if nighttime service is authorized
- 6) Judge’s signature
- 7) Date issued
How many days do you have to serve a search warrant
10 calendar days
A search warrant shall be executed and returned within 10 days after date of issuance. A warrant executed within the 10-day period shall be deemed to have been timely executed and no further showing of timeliness need be made. After the expiration of 10 days, the warrant, unless executed, is void. The documents and records of the court relating to the warrant need not be open to the public until the execution and return of the warrant or the expiration of the 10-day period after issuance. Thereafter, if the warrant has been executed, the documents and records shall be open to the public as a judicial record. (1534 PC
When is a warrantless search permitted
- 1) Consent
- 2) Arrest
- 3) Fourth Waiver
- 4) Exigent Circumstances
- 5) Probation
- 6) Parole
- 7) Probable Cause
- 8) Plain View
- 9) Auto theft detective at repair shop
What times can arrest warrants be served
- 1) Felony- Anytime
- 2) Misdemeanor- 6am-10pm (unless night service is authorized)
What times can search warrants be served
7a – 10p (unless night service authorized)
Knock and Notice; 844 PC and 1531 PC (know the differences)
- 1) Knock or make presence known
- 2) Identify self
- 3) Explain purpose
- 4) Demand Entry
(No exigency: 1 min. Known someone inside: 30 secs.; Courts: 15-30 secs reasonable)
***know the code sections***
844 PC (ARREST)– A peace officer may break open the door or window of the house in which the person to be arrested is, or is believed to be after having demanded admittance and explained the purpose for admittance. (force entry after demanding entry and stating purpose)
1531 PC (SEARCH)- A peace officer may break open any outer or inner door or window of a house, or anything therein, to execute a warrant, if, after notice of his authority and purpose, he is refused entry. (force entry if entry was refused)
Parts of an Ops Plan
- 1) Date
- 2) Start time
- 3) Talk Groups (Radio Frequencies
- 4) Case #
- 5) Case Agent
- 6) Supervisor
- 7) Type of Operation
- 8) Substance
- 9) Threat Assessment
- 10) Hospitals
- 11) Notifications
- 12) Suspects
- 13) Locations
- 14) Vehicles
- 15) Units Involved
- 16) Special Equipment
- 17) Trouble/Bust Signals
- 18) Special Instruments/Instructions/Information
- 19) Summary of Investigation
- 20) Diagrams
Definition of Criminal Street Gang
A gang is a group of three or more persons who have a common identifying sign, symbol or name, and whose members individually or collectively engage in or have engaged in a pattern of definable criminal activity creating an atmosphere of fear and intimidation in the community.
- · Group of three or more people
- · With a common sign, symbol, or name
- · Who engage in criminal activity
- · Creating fear and intimidation in the community
Name 5 gangs in SDSD jurisdiction
- 1) VSM – Varrio San Marcos
- 2) SXL – South Los (San Marcos)
- 3) VHB – Vista Homeboys
- 4) Fallbrook Locos
- 5) Spring Valley Locos
- 6) Encinitas Flats
- 7) Imperials
- 8) Spring Valley Locos
- 9) H.A
- 10) Mongols
What does STEPA stand for
Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act (186.22 PC)
How has STEP helped law enforcement
186.22 PC – Any person who actively participates in any criminal street gang with knowledge that its members engage in or have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity, and who willfully promotes that gang, shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for a period not to exceed one year, or by imprisonment in the state prison for 16 months, 2 or 3 years. IT IS A STRIKE!
The benefits of the STEP act are:
- a) Increased sentences
- b) New Felony Sections
- c) It allows juveniles to be tried as adults
- · New Laws: street gang conspiracy, failing to register as a gang member, gang recruiting, increased penalties for vandalism, vicarious liability of non-shooters, recruiting minors.
- What are the crimes Listed in the STEP Act (there is over 30)
- 1) Assault with a deadly Weapon
- 2) Robbery
- 3) Homicide
- 4) Sales, possession for sales, transport, manufacture controlled substance
- 5) Arson
- 6) Shooting at dwelling
- 7) Grand Theft
- 8) Burglary
- 9) Rape
- 10) Kidnaping
- 11) Mayhem
- 12) Torture
- 13) Auto Theft
- 14) Intimidating a witness
- 15) Carjacking
- 16) Felony Vandalism
- 17) Criminal Threats
- 18) Sale of Firearms
Proposition 21- Gang Violence and Juvenile Crime Prevention Act:
Gives new look to some old crimes. New laws were made to deter gang & juvenile violence. Provides new punishment for juvenile & gang crimes, new strikes were added to felony crimes, gives the DA authority to charge juvies, 14 or older as adults if charged with murder. DA can charge juvies 14 or older as an adult if they commit violent felony or gang crime. DA can charge juvies 16 or older as adults if they commit any violent felony. A juvenile suspect’s name, alleged crime, and physical description may be made public if an arrest warrant was issued for a violent felony.
What are Abatements
Abatements are a civil process, which can be used to supplement or assist deputies with problems that have not been successfully remedied through traditional law enforcement methods. Since the process is civil in nature, the burden of proof required to prevail in court is much lower than in a criminal case
The Sheriff's Department, District Attorney, Code enforcement, and neighborhood work together to improve the quality of life in the community.
What are the 4 types of Abatements
- 1) Gang (186.22 PC)
- 2) Alcohol and Prostitution (Alcohol 11200-11207PC Prostitution 11225-11235 PC)
- 3) Drug (11570-11587 H&S)
- 4) Nuisance (370 PC Nuisance defined)
How often do 290 registrants need to register
Offenders must register with the chief of Police in the city they reside in, the Sheriff of the county they reside in, or with the chief of police of universities if living on campus within 5 working days of coming into, or changing his or her residence within any city, county, or campus.
- 1) Sexual offenders will register every year within 5 working days of their birthday
- 2) Sexual violent predator will register every year within 5 working days of their birthday and every 90 days thereafter
- 3) Transient sexual offenders will register every year within 5 working days of their birthday and every 30 days thereafter
Alcohol and Beverage Control
What are the core functions of ABC
- 1) Licensing- Investigation of new licenses/licensees
- 2) Enforcement- Investigate violations of law
What to look for during a bar check
- 1) Weapons
- 2) Correct type of alcohol
- 3) Violations of conditions
- 4) Drugs
- 5) Minors
- 6) Buggy Bottles
Search warrant for Suspect
Based on an issued AW for Suspect
Suspect is in a third person’s home
Not a SEARCH WARRANT!
Arrest Warrant for Suspect
No Court case filed
Limitations – no extradition!