A theory of biological aging; views the body as similar to a machine; like an old car or truck, that simply wears out.
Somatic mutation theory of aging
A biological theory of aging that genetic damage causes aging of cells and tissues.
Immune function theory of aging
A biological theory of aging based on two discoveries; (1) protective immune reactions decline with age, with the body becoming less capable of producing sufficient quantities and kinds of antibodies, and (2) the aging immune system mistakenly produces antibodies against normal body proteins, leading to a loss of self-recognition; as the immune system becomes less efficient, normal aging occurs.
Cross-linkage theory of aging
A theory of biological aging states that the accumulation of cross-linked collagen is responsible many changes associated with aging such as the loss of elasticity of the skin, hardening of the arteries of the circulatory system, and stiffness of joints throughout the body.
Free radical theory of aging
A theory of biological aging: the view that free radicals contribute to the aging process by forming age pigment and by producing cross-links.
Genetic control theory of aging
A theory of biological aging; the view that the life span in programmed into the genes.
The study of the biological processes that cause the mental and physical decline in old age.
Active life expectancy
Measure of the number of years a person can expect to live without a disability.
A discoloration or spotting that commonly appears on the face, back of hands, and forearms of people 50 or older.
Purple bruises; sites where fragile blood vessels have ruptured.
Basal cell carcinoma
Common type of skin cancer, easily cured. Does not spread to other parts of the body, but can grow and invade surrounding tissue.
Squamous cell carcinoma
A form of skin cancer.
Dangerous skin cancer; which can metastasize and send cancerous cells to other parts of the body.
Central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
All parts of the nervous system except the brain and spinal cord; includes the spinal nerves that arise from the spinal cord.
Brain cells that carry information throughout the body in the form of electrical signals.
Peripheral nerves that carry incoming messages from the environment to the central nervous system.
They carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to muscles and glands thoughout the body.
A brain structure involved in body movements and, to some degree, balance; located at the back and base of the brain; essential in the fine-tuning of voluntary and involuntary muscular movements.
The fear of falling in the elderly who have had a prior fall.
A chronic brain disorder that may occur as early as age 30 but is more commonly diagnosed among people 60 or older; signs include a slowing of movement, stooped posture with the head forward, elbows flexed, a shuffling gait, slurred speech, and a noticeable tremor.
The inability of the eye to focus on near objects.
A condition in which the lens of the eye becomes cloudy, and light cannot penetrate.
A serious condition that can lead to blindness; occurs when fluid cannot leave the anterior cavity of the eye through the normal channels; pressure build up within the eye gradually destroying vision.
Normal loss of hearing with age.
Disease that causes the outside walls of the bone to become thinner and the inner part of the bone to become spongy; in the later stages, symptoms include loss of height, back pain, and a curving of the upper back or spine, sometimes called a dogwager's hump when the spinal bones weaken and slowly collapse under the weight of the upper bones.
A chronic disease that causes joint inflamation and its consequences of pain, swelling, and deformity.
Inflammation of the synovial membranes, which line the joint capsule and the cartilage that covers the bones.
A syndrome of physical and psychological changes that occur in midlife.
The permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle.
Coronary bypasss surgery
A procedure to reduce blockage of the blood vessels supplying the heart.
Hypertensive cardiovascular disease
Hypertension leading to a heart attack.
Chest pains that may precede a heart attack.
Congestive heart failure
A condition in which the heart's function as a pump is inadequate to meet the body's needs.