Psychology Test 3.txt

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    • description "Words needed for test"
    • fileName "Psychology Test 3"
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    • Who is Jean Piaget
    • A child prodigy who had some early work with Binet. She helped the formulation theory
  1. The Sensorimotor Period?
    Begins with reflex and responses are connect to stimulation. "Out of sight, out of mind"....
  2. What is Object Permanence?
    When a child begins cognitive thinking... children under 6 months do not have object permanence
  3. Describe the Pre-optional period (4-7 years old)
    Egocentric type age (me myself and I) ... illogical age (2+2 = whatever parent or teacher states)
  4. Describe Concrete Operations (7-13)
    Rules dominate behavior and thinking ... Logical thought... Inflexibilty: "Black and white reasoning"...
  5. Describe Formal Operations
    It's Abstract Reasoning... Flexibility in thought Process... The emergence of personal introspection and moral reasoning
  6. Desribe Piaget: A final comment
    Deals with applications of mortality (divorce as example...) If someone expierence divorce during the preoptional phase = child blames themselves, tries to change themself because they think its thier fault...

    During Concrete Phase = children know exactly what's going on
  7. What did Erik Erikson do?
    Provided life-span personality development... noted eight consecutive crisis thay emeger through life... and that we're always developing no matter what
  8. Describe Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1 years..Erikson)
    Trust: Faith and Predictability in environment... optimism about future

    Mistrust: suspicious, fearful, and overly concerned about security
  9. Descrube Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (1-3 years... Erikson)
    Autonomy: Gain control over bodily functions band coordination.

    Shame and Doubt: Hostile Rejection of all controls... self-doubt abour ability to control body
  10. Describe Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years... Erikson)
    Initiative: Parental Support for trying new things leads to joy in exercising initiative and taking new challenges

    Guilt: Feelings of guilt, unworthiness
  11. Describe Industry vs. Inferiority (6-13 years... Erikson)
    Industry: Learning new skills of personal care, produce work and independent living

    Inferiority: Failure to learn these skills leads to - Feelings of mediocrity, Low self sufficiency
  12. Describe Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence... Erikson)
    Identity: integration of ones roles in life into a coherent pattern

    Role Confusion: Failure to integrate these roles leads to a lack of personal identity and despair
  13. The Origin and blueprint of life is?
  14. In prenatal development, describe conception
    The union of sperm and egg
  15. In Prenatal Development, what is a Zygote?
    The first cell EVA! ;)
  16. In prenatal development, what's an Ovum?
    Undifferentiated mass of cells, multicellular zygote... in this stage, cells are taken for in vitro fertilization (all cells the same at this stage)
  17. In prenatal development, describe an Embryo
    Differentiation as in cells begin to take unqiue characteristics (skin cells, organ cells... etc.)

    Organogenesis happens in 1st trisemester and any disturbance that happens here is critical to the survival of the fetus.
  18. In prenatal development, descrube a fetus
    Fetus just deals with the growth, but some fine tuning occurs. Most important parts have been taken care of, fetus job to grow
  19. In the Birth and the Neonate, describe the birth process
    The head of the baby determines if natural birth is possible... Anything regarding the birth process is called perinatal period
  20. In birth and the neonate, describe natural child birth as discussed in class
    Used to be really dangerous = women would die from childbirth and infections could kill mom and child.

    Medicalization of childbirth = childbirth being controlled in a specific setting like hospital. Also deals with child becoming sterile (developed from the process of the importance of washing hands)
  21. In Birth and the Neonate, what are some common birth problems?
    Anoxia is one example, which is the deprivation of oxygen from the baby
  22. Describe some of the intricate parts of Human growth...
    Cephalocaudial is growth from the head to tail(or bottom)... the head grows first then the bodies continues for a longer duratiin of time... Babies have a larger head in proportion to the body

    Proximodistal dwals with the fetus growing from the inside of the body to the outward.
  23. Describe Jean Piaget as a child prodigy
    Submitted scholarly paper by 9... completed two phds by the age of 18-19
  24. Describe Jean Piagets early work with Binet
    Worked with Binet (they did not get along, Binet fired him)...

    Thought that children did not know less than us as proposed by Binet but that they knew different than us, they saw the work different and communicated differently
  25. Describe the Formulation Theory (Jean Piaget)
    Belief that children understood and knew different based on their age

    Cannot teach a child something they aren't ready to learn
  26. Describe Jean Piagets emphasis on maturation and "readiness to learn"
    Concluded that a certain level of maturation is needed to learn different concepts...

    "Readiness to learn" = finally ready to learn concept
  27. Describe the Verbal Scale and all of its components
    General Information such as capitals of states or areas, boiling temperature, and shape of a ball...

    Comprehension which is relegated to background and knowledge

    Vocabulary is the biggest determinant of IQ and it's related to age

    Arithmetic Reasoning deals with manipulating quantities

    Digit span and similarities
  28. What is the Performance Scale?
    Usually involves no talking but deals with picture completion,

    picture arrangement (order of events),

    Block design (uses shapes/colors to build picture such as using red blocks to make a pic = tests spaitial ability),

    Object Assembly, Coding, and Mazes
  29. After using verbal and performance scale and take the number in each categories, what do you get?
    Full scale IQ
  30. Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of Repression
    Equates to amnesia if overused (the least amount of Mental illness)
  31. Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of Sublimation
    Accepting substitute goals
  32. Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of fantasy
    An escapr of reality... Video game, movie, etc
  33. Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of rationalization
    Attempting to rationalize sonething wrong
  34. Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism Projection
    Where you blame others for your own shortcomings... Even positive attitudes. See others what you see in yourself, get upset
  35. Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of displacement
    Taking out emotion onto something... getting bad grade and slamming on the desk or mad at life, hurt wife
  36. Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of Regression
    Regressing Personality, appearance, or demeanor to gain something
  37. Describe the Ego Defense Mechanism of Reaction Formation
    Having a problem and removing it from self or society
  38. What's the Humanistic Personality Theory
    Any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning
  39. What are the Big 5 dimensions of personality
    Extroversion, agreableness, dependability, emotional stability, culture
  40. Describe the Projective Test called Thematic Appreception Test (TAT)
    A test composed of ambiguous pictures about which a person is asked to write complex story...

    Usually black and white... cannot diagnose a person, only certain elements personality and thinking patterns...

    CAT = Same test but for children
  41. Describe the Projective Test Rorschach
    A test composed of ambiguous ink blots; the way ppl interpret the blots is thought to reveal aspects of their personality
  42. Describe the other projective test
    Draw a person.. kids usually asked to draw a person or themselves; gives insight on how they see themselves or others

    Sentence completion

  43. Define abnormal behavior
    Behavior that is maladaptive life functioning or serious personal discomfort
  44. Ddetail all the intricate parts of the term insane
    Insane is a legal term that deals with responsibility of someone to be responsible or accountable for their actions

    Just because someone is mentally ill does not mean they are insane
  45. What's the difference between maladaptive behavior and the twrm insane?
    Maladaptive behavior = mental health

    Insane = legal responsibility
  46. What is DSM-IV and explain all the components that it deals with
    Diagnostic and statistical manual of each mental disorderb (4th Edition).

    Containd clear definitions of each mental disorder (if not on list u dnt have disorder... specific criteria must be met)

    American psychiatric association that classifies over 230 psychological disorders into 16 categories... no reference as to why
  47. Leading cause of mental disorders?
  48. What are mood disorders?
    Disyurbances in mood or prolonged emotional state (sleep disturbances)
  49. Describe the mood disorder, depression
    Overwhelming feeling of sadness

    Lack of interest in activities

    Excess guilt or worthlessness

    Treat it through medication
  50. Describe the mood disorder, Mania
    Characterized by euphoric states..

    Extreme physical activity or excessive talkativeness

    Disreactedness and sometimes grandiosity
  51. Describe the mood disorder, bipolar
    Periods of Mania and Depression in which they alternate

    Can be referenced to Maniac-depression

    Can be treated with lithium to correct chemical imbalances
  52. What are the causes of mood disorders
    Combination of genetics, chemical imbalances in the brain, psychological factors, and social factors
  53. What is the relationship between mood disorders and suicide
    People in deep depression do not commit because of low energy... those with bipolar disorder commit more because swinging in and out of depression
  54. What are anxiety disorders
    Disorders in which anxiety is a chwrqcteristic feature or the avoidance of anxiety seems to motivate abnormal behavior
  55. List the three specific tyoes of phobias
    Specific: intense paralyzing fear of some object or thing

    Social: excessivr inappropriate fears connected with social situations or performances in front of other people

    Agoraphobia: involves multiple intense fear of crowds, public places, and other situations that require seperation from a sourcr of security
  56. What's a panic disorder and a panic attack
    An anxiety disorder caused by reoccurring panic attacks

    A panic attack is a sudden, unpredictable, and overwhelming experience od intense fear or terror without any reasonable cause... used to be anxiety attacks
  57. What is a generalized anxiety disorder
    An anxiety disorder characterized by prolonged vague but intense fear
  58. What is obsessive compulsive disorder
    An anxiety disorder in which a person driven to hunk disturbing thoughts (obsessions) and/or to perform senseless rituals (compulsions)

    Obsessions refer to thought

    Compulsions refer to behavior
  59. What are the two conversion disorders?
    Somatoform disorsers in which dramatic specific disability has no physical cause but instead seems related to psychological problems... More common in earlier centuries. Include a wide variety of symptoms such as blindness, deafness, or paralysis... Patient believes that they have a disability but they dont

    Hypochondriasis: A Somatoform disorder in which a person intreperts insignificant symptoms as signs or serious illness in the absense of any organic evidence such illness
  60. What are dissociative disorders
    Disorders in which some aspect of the peesonality seems seperated from the rest
  61. What is the dissociative disorder amnesia?
    Rare disorder characterized by loss of memory dor last events without organic cause. Often results from intolerable experience
  62. What is the dissociative disorder fugue
    Disorser that involves flight from home and the assumotion of a new identity, with amensia for past identity and events
  63. What is the dissociative identity Disorder
    Disorder in which person appears to have distinct personalities that come out in different times
  64. What are personality traits
    Dimensions or characteristics in which people differ in distinctive ways
  65. What ie the objective test 16pf
    16 personality questionnaire created by Cattell that provides scores on the 16 trwits he identified
  66. What is the objective test MMPI
    Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory that includes 500 questions. This test tries to look at patterns in which u answer the questions.. most widely used objective personality test

    Ability to tell if a person has paranoia or if normal
  67. Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, Hypochondriasis
    Overly concerned with one little thing about there health exp = thinking ppl turn into cancer
  68. Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, Depression
    Also measures the opposite of depression, extreme happiness
  69. Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, hysteria
    High levels of anxiety
  70. Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, psychopathic deviation (PD)
    Conformity gives u low score

    Individuality gives u high score

    Extremely high score = psychopathic killers
  71. Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, Masculinity-femininity
  72. Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, paranoia
  73. Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, psychasthenia
    Assess obsession

    Assess complusions...

    They need to perform an action (checking if all doors locked... always stepping on cracks)
  74. Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, schizophrenia
    Assesses retreat from reality

    High scores = away from reality

    Some are really good artist but seem to stray from reality
  75. Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, hypomania
    Overreactive, excited, impulsive

    Measures activity levels
  76. Describe MMPI-2 clinical scale, social introversion
    Shy, inhibited

    High scores = introverted

    Low scores = extroverted
  77. Describe Shcizophrenic disorders
    Severed disorder that = is characterized by a retreat from reality often involves disturbances of thought communication emotions including delusions and hallucinations and 1 percent of the population is affected
  78. Describe the schizophrenic type of disorder, Disorganized schizophrenia "hebephernia"
    Bizarre and childlike behavior is common
  79. Describe the schizophrenic type of disorder, Catatonic schizophrenia
    Disturbed motor activity is prominent, patient may remain motorless or in a posture position for a long time
  80. Describe the schizophrenic type of disorder, Paranoid schizophrenia
    Marked by extreme suspiciousness and complex bizarre delusions
  81. Describe the schizophrenic type of disorder, undifferentiated schizophrenia
    These are clear schizophrenic symptoms that do not meet the categories of other subtypes
  82. Describe does the model of psychotherapy, historical way
    Cause: demons

    Treatment: Exorcism
  83. Describe does the model of psychotherapy, Organic (neuroscience)
    Cause: biological

    Treatment: drugs/surgery/etc

    • Bipolar = lithium
    • Phenothiazines
    • Surgery: prefrontal lobotomy (not performed as much anymore)
    • ETC - Shocked therapy used for extreme depression
  84. Describe does the model of psychotherapy, psychodynamic
    Cause: underlying conflict

    • Treatment: Conflict resolution
    • Psychotherapy but really expensive
  85. Describe does the model of psychotherapy, cognitive
    Cause: faulty thinking

    • Treatment: relearning
    • Helps with phobias
  86. Describe does the model of psychotherapy, ethical
    Cause: irresponsibility

    • Treatment: responsibility
    • Only one that works for substance abuse
  87. Describe Intimacy vs Isolation (early adulthood)
    Intimacy: In order to love another, one must have resolved all earlier crises

    Isolation: Failure at intimacy brings a painful sense of loneliness + incompleteness
  88. Describe Generality vs Stagnation (Middle adulthood)
    Generality: experience meaning + joy in all major activities of life

    Stagnation: Failure to remain productive + creative.. dull or resentful
  89. Integrity vs Despair (late adulthood)
    Integrity: acceptance of once life, a sense that it is complete and satisfactory... feel like life is complete

    Despair: Despair at the loss of former roles and missed opportunities... fear approaching death
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Psychology Test 3.txt
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