Physio- L34- Urine Production- Bladder Function

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  1. Collecting Duct
    • Goes through from cortex to medulla
    • Always dilute filtrate at cortical end
    • Responds to vasopressin; no VP-> little water reabsorption-> dilute urine
  2. Vasopressin
    • From posterior pituitary
    • Released when plasma osmolarity high
    • Causes insertion of aquaporins in collecting duct membrane
  3. Aquaporins (AqP)
    • water channels- water goes through AqP
    • osmotic pressure of solutes in medulla (1200 mOsm) draws water
    • Retain water, urine up to 1200 mOsm
    • (drink sea water (900 mOsm) decrease to 600 mOsm reduce gradient)
  4. Diabetes Insipidus (tasteless)
    • Either decreases vasopressin production or lack of kidney response (bad receptors)
    • Excess water loss->shock-> death
  5. Urine Buffering
    • Filtrate pH must be 4.5 (capable to getting rid of every extra H+ ion it needs to) or greater for H+ to enter filtrate
    • Bicarbonate and phosphate from filtration and ammonia (only significant base; makes urine smell)¬†from tubular secretion buffer urine
    • pH 6.0; H+ 30 times higher; pH blood 7.4
  6. Aldosterone Effects
    • Increase number of active Na+ carriers on luminal side of collecting duct tubular cells
    • This increases Na+ reabsorption in collecting duct
    • Water follows osmotically
  7. Secondary Hypertension
    • Reduced renal artery flow decreases renal BP->excess renin->-> increased BP
    • Treat with ACE inhibitors to block Ang II production
    • Diagnosis by determining RBF with PAH
  8. Renal Dysfunction
    • Wide glomerular pores-> protein in urine -> edema due to low protein
    • Loss of concentrating/ diluting- loss of nephrons (multiple causes)
    • Acidosis by, e.g., lack of ammonia (reduced H+ excretion) -> decreases neural function
  9. Sodium Dysfunction
    • Excess Na+ retention leads to edema, hypertension
    • Decreased filtering, excessive aldosterone, leads to heart failure
  10. Bladder Function
    • Storage of urine
    • No Changes after leaving kidney
  11. Ureter Entry
    • Ureter connects kidney to bladder
    • Ureters passes inside bladder wall at an angle
    • Increased bladder pressure closes ureters, prevents backflow
  12. Bladder Sphincters
    • Around urethra, the tube draining the bladder
    • Internal urinary sphincter is smooth muscle- involuntary
    • External urinary sphincter is skeletal muscle- voluntary
  13. Control of Microturition
    • urination
    • Spinal reflex- (no CNS input required) relaxation of internal sphincter.....When bladder pressure increases (more neurons in-between sphincters now)
    • Reflex relaxation of external sphincter follows
    • Cortex can overcome reflex relaxation of external sphincter
    • Parasymp neurons increase bladder body contraction
    • Pelvic floor descends urine flow
Card Set
Physio- L34- Urine Production- Bladder Function
msu Physio
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