Test Questions

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  1. What are the differences between endotoxin and exotoxins?
    endotoxins are part of the outer portion of the gram negative cell wall they are made up from the lipid part of LPS.. Exotoxins are proteins that are produced inside the bacterium which release in the surrounding medium
  2. What are the 3 exotoxins and there functions?
    • cytotoxins-kill host cells or effect their function
    • neurotoxins- interfere with nerve impulses
    • enterotoxins- effects cells in the gastrointestinal tract
  3. What are antitoxins?
    antibodies produced by the the body against exotoxins
  4. What are toxoids?
    inactivated exotoxins injected into the body to produce immunity
  5. What is the purpose for sweat and tears?
    sweat contains lysozyme and enyzme that can  break down gram positive cell wall this enyzme is also found in tears, saliva, nasal and tissue fluids
  6. What is sebum?
    produced by the sebaceous glands forms  protective film over surface of skin low ph discourages bacterial growth
  7. What is a lacrimal apparatus?
    group of structure that manufacturers and drain away tears, keeps microbes from collecting on the surface of the eye
  8. What does saliva do?
    Washes a microbes in mouth and washes from the surface of teeth
  9. What is symbiosis?
    the host and microbiota living together
  10. What is commensalism?
    if one benefits and the other isn't harmed
  11. What are opportunistic pathogens
    are organisms which do not normally cause disease if the person is weakened
  12. What is septicemia?
    presence of bacteria of the blood that multiply
  13. What is contract transmission?
    spread of disease by direct or indirect contact or by droplet transmission.
  14. What is indirect contact?
    spread to susceptible host through a non living object which is called a fomite
  15. What is droplet transmission?
    mucus droplets spread a short distance by talking, sneezing,  coughing
  16. What is vehicle transmission?
    transmission of disease agents by a medium such as food water or air more than 1 meter...
  17. What is vector transmission ?
    animals which carry pathogens form one host to another ex arthoropods
  18. What is incidence?
    the fraction of a population that contracts the disease during a particular time period
  19. What is prevalence?
    fractions of a populations having the disease at a specified time
  20. What is sporadic?
    occurs only occasionally
  21. What is endemic?
    constantly present
  22. What is a epidemic?
    many people in a given area acquire a certain disease in a short period of time
  23. What is pandemic?
    world wide epidemci
  24. Where are b and t cells mature?
    b cells in the blood marrow and t cells  thymus
  25. What are symptoms?
    subjective changes in body function pain malaise not observable
  26. What are signs?
    objective changes that can be viewed and observed
  27. What is syndrome?
    a group of symptoms or signs which may always accompany a particular disease
  28. What is a communicable or non communicable disease?
    c-disease is disease which spreads from one host to another

    nc- not spread form host to host .. opportunistic infections caused by normal flora
  29. What are plasmids? What is lysogenic ?
    circular dna of the cytoplasm which can carry virulence factors for lysogenic phages.. lysogenic phages are incorporated in the cell wall
  30. What is non specific defense?
    • defenses that protect against any pathogen regardless of species .. 2 lines of defense first skin and mucos membrane.
    • second phagocytes inflammation and fever
  31. What is a specific defense.
    immunity 3rd line of defense effective against particular pathogens
  32. What are antigens?
    organisms or substances that provoke an immune response

    • the immune response involves antibodies and specialized lymphocytes
    •  antigens and immune response are non self
  33. What are antibodies?
    proteins made in response to an antigen each antibody has 2 identical sites for binding antigens
  34. What are IgG?
    are the most antibodies in serum  can cross the placenta
  35. What is IgM
    is the largest with the shortest life .. enhances phagacytosis first antibody to appear in response to antigen exposure antigens will be acute
  36. What is IgE?
    anibodies that produce the cells that cause allergic reaction .. attaches to the cells and produce histamine
  37. What is IgD?
    act as antigen receptors for be cells, found in blood and lymph
  38. What is crisis?
    period of sweating indicates that temperature is falling
  39. What is kinases?
    It is produced by bacteria break down firbrin and dissolve clots formed by the body to isolate infections
  40. What is necrotizing factors
    penetration defense the kills body cells
  41. What is hypothermic factor
    penetration defense that decreases body temperature
  42. what is lecithinase
    penertration defense that detroys plasma membrane
  43. what is siderophores
    penertration defense scavenges iron from body fluids
  44. What os attenuated whole agent vaccination?
    uses living but weakened microbes can acheive lifelong effects
  45. what are subunit vaccinations
    only antigenic fragments for a microorganisms  are safer since they cannot reproduce int the receipent
  46. What are conjugated vaccines
    vaccines based on capsular polysaccharides  best for childred
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