BA 101

  1. The main theories on motivation are as follows:
    • -the Hawthorne studies suggest the employees are more motivated when they receive more attention
    • -Maslow's hierachy of needs theory suggests that employees are satisfied by different needs depending on their position within the hierarchy.  Firms can motivate employees at the low end of the hierarchy by promising job security or safe working conditions.  Firms can motivate employees whose basic needs are already fulfilled by allowing social interaction or more responsibilities.
    • -Herzberg's job satisfaction study suggests that the factors that prevent job dissatisfaction are different from those that enhance job satisfaction.  Adequate salary and working conditions prevent job dissatisfaction, while responsibility and recognition enhance job satisfaction.
    • -McGregor's Theories X and Y suggest that when supervisors believe employees dislike work and responsibilities (Theory X), they do not delegate responsibilities and employees are not motivated; when superviros believe that employees prefer responsibilities (Theory Y), they delegate more responsibilities, which motivates employees.
    • -Theory Z suggests that employees are more satisfied when they are involved in decision making and therefore may be more motivated.
    • -Expectancy theory suggests that employees are more motivated if compensation is aligned with goals that are achievable and offer some reward
    • -Equity theory suggests that employees are more motivated if their compensation is aligned with their relative contribution to the firm's total output.
  2. job satisfaction
    the degree to which employees are satisfied with their jobs
  3. hierarchy of needs
    needs are ranked in five general categories.  Once a given category of needs is achieved, people become motivated to reach the next category
  4. physiological needs
    the basic requirements for survival
  5. safety needs
    job security and safe working conditions
  6. social needs
    the need to be part of a group
  7. esteem needs
    respect, prestige, and recognition
  8. self-actualization
    the need to fully reach one's potential
  9. hygiene factors
    work-related factors that can fulfill basic needs and prevent job dissatisfaction
  10. motivational factors
    work-related factors that can lead to job satisfaction and motivate employees
  11. expectancy theory
    holds that an employee's efforts are influenced by the expected outcome (reward) for those efforts
  12. equity theory
    suggests that compensation should be equitable, or in proportion to each employee's contribution
  13. reinforcement theory
    suggests that reinforcement can influence behavior
  14. positive reinforcement
    motivates employees by providing rewards for high performance
  15. negative reinforcement
    motivates employees by encouragement them to behave in a manner that avoids unfavorable consequences
  16. job enrichment programs
    programs designed to increase the job satisfaction of employees
  17. merit system
    a compensation system that allocates raises according to performance (merit)
  18. across-the-board system
    a compensation system that allocates similar raises to all employees
  19. incentive plans
    provide employees with various forms of compensation if they meet specific performance goals
  20. flextime programs
    programs that allow for a more flexible work schedule
  21. compressed workweek
    compresses the workload into fewer days per week
  22. job sharing
    two or more persons share a particular work schedule
  23. job enrichment
    a program to expand (enlarge) the jobs assigned to employees
  24. job rotation
    a program that allows a set of employees to periodically rotate their job assignment
  25. empowerment
    allowing employees the power to make more decisions
  26. participative management
    employees are allowed to participate in various decisions made by their supervisors or others
  27. management by objectives (MBO)
    allows employees to participate in setting their goals and determining the manner in which they complete their tasks
  28. teamwork
    a group of employees with varied job positions have the responsibility to achieve a specified goal
  29. open-book management
    a form of employee involvement that educates employees on their contribution to the firm and enables them to periodically assess their own performance levels
Card Set
BA 101
Motivating Employees