# SHM and Waves

 Simple Harmonic Motion 1.) Acceleration is directly proportional to displacement2.) Acceleration is always directed towards the equilibrium position. 3.) Acceleration and displacement are in opposite directions. Vibrations can be: ForcedFree Oscillation to-and-fro movement. Something which vibrates from side to side with a repeated cycle of motion Free vibration A vibration which vibrates at its own natural frequency Forced vibration / oscillation When an object is forces to oscillate at a particular frequency by an external oscillator giving it energy. Natural Frequency The frequency at which an object oscillates with greatest amplitude In any oscillating system there is a restoring force. What is a restoring force? The force which acts to drive the system back towards equilibrium position during an oscillation In an oscillating system including SHM there is constant interchange between ________ and ________ assuming there are no damping forces. Potential energy and Kinetic energy Damping forces Forces acting on an oscillating system that tend to reduce the total energy of the system (Friction at pivot or air resistance tend to reduce amplitude of system) Forced Frequency The frequency by which the driven system will oscillate at the frequency imposed by the driving agent Resonance When the frequency of a forced vibration is equal to the natural frequency of the vibrating object and thus creating a maximum amplitude. There is most efficient transfer of energy from outside to oscillating system Transverse Wave Oscillation of particles is perpendicular to the direction of wave motion Longitudinal Wave Motion of particle is parallel to wave direction Wavelength Distance between 2 adjacent points in phase Period Time taken for one oscillation to occur Amplitude The maximum displacement from the mean position Frequency The number of vibrations per second Progressive wave properties : Wave profile moves with wave speedNet transfer of energy along wave directionParticles on same wave have the same amplitudeAdjacent particles are out of phase Stationary Wave profile is staticNo transfer of energyAdjacent particles have different amplitudes: Nodes: Points of zero amp. Antinodes: Points of max ampAdjacent particles are in phase Principle of superposition When two or more waves cross, the resultant displacement is equal to the sum of the individual displacement Constructive intereference Takes place when path difference is a whole number of wavelength Destructive Interference When path difference is one and a half wavelength Superposition is only possible when light is: Coherent( Having a fixed phase difference ) Monochromatic Light Light having a single wavelength ex.  sodium lamps and lasers What does Young's Double Slit experiment show? The effect of the principle of superposition. Bright and dark fringes are formed on screen due to destructive and constructive interference between the two overlapping waves. What does fringe separation depend on? distance between slit S1 and S2 , dDistance between double slit and screen, DWavelength of light Authortwiggyguy ID248772 Card SetSHM and Waves DescriptionRelating to Waves and simple harmonic motion. Updated2013-11-24T13:48:50Z Show Answers