a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience
our capacity to learn new behaviors that enable us to cope with changing circumstances
How do we learn?
Association, Classical conditioning, Operant conditioning and Observation
our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence
we learn to associate two stimuli, in order to anticipate events that will follow (e.g. bell sounding before a certain stumil takes place, we become accustomed to the after stimulation after hearing a bell)
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to a stimulus (conditioned or unconditioned)
____'s work provided a basis for later behaviorists like John Watson and B. F. Skinner.Behaviorists focus on ____.
Pavlov’s, observable behavior
Unconditioned response (UR)
naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus (UR)
naturally and automatically elicits a response
Conditioned response (CR)
learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
Conditioned stimulus (CS)—
an originally neutral stimulus that comes to trigger a conditioned response by being associated with an unconditioned stimulus
the initial stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place.
Why is Timing is important when dealing with Acqusition?
In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the neutral stimulus needs to come before the unconditioned stimulus.
•The time in between the two stimuli should be about half a second.
When the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR
(salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction
After a rest
period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously
in weakened form.
But if the CS
(tone) persists alone, the CR becomes extinct again.
Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is
generalization. Pavlov conditioned the dog’s salivation (CR) by using
miniature vibrators (CS) on the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other
parts of the dog’s body, salivation dropped
Discrimination is the
learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli
that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
Pavlov’s greatest contribution to psychology is
isolating elementary behaviors from more complex ones through objective
Early behaviorists believed that learned behaviors of various
animals could be reduced to ______ ____.
later behaviorists suggested that animals learn the
predictability of a stimulus, meaning they learn ____ or ____ of a stimulus.
expectancy or awareness
we learn to ignore unchanging
Ex. you don’t notice certain smells after being in a place for a while