1. What is penicillin class?
    Beta lactams
  2. What does penicillin cover?
    often gram +
  3. What is the spectrum of Augmentin? (a penicillin)
    • Gram +
    • Some gram -
    • Anaerobes like bacteroids
  4. What is augmenting the drug of choice for?
    Animal bites (pasturella multocida)
  5. Augmentin is a great 1st line of defense against what?
    • Mild Diabetic foot infections
    • PO
  6. What is Unasyn (a penicillin-- ampicillin/sulbactam) the drug of choice for?
    presume aerobi and anaerobic infections
  7. What is the spectrum fro Zosyn?
    • Gram +
    • Increased gram- coverage
    • anaerobes
  8. What is the most common broad spectrum IV drug used in diabetic infections today?
    Zosyn ( Pipercillin/Tazobactam)
  9. What is the spectrum of Penicillin G?
    • Pure streptococcal infections
    • anaerobes including clostridia (no bactericidal coverage)
    • Enterococcus
  10. What is Penicillin G used to treat?
    • open farm/soil injuries
    • drug addition
  11. What class are cephalosporins?
    Beta lactamase inhibitors through PCN binding protein

  12. What is an important fact about cephalosporins in relation to patient allergies?
    10 % if patients with allergic hypersensitivity to PNC also have cx-rxn with cephalosporins
  13. What is the spectrum for cephalosporins?
    • Staph
    • Strep
    • Gram -
    • anaerobes other than bacteroides
  14. What gram negatives are treated with cephalosporins? (4)
    • E. Coli
    • Shigella
    • Salmonella
    • P. mirabilis
  15. What is Keflex (Cephalexin) used to treat as a 1st line of defense?
    • Superficial infections in healthy patients 
    • Ex: cellulitis, ingrown nails
  16. Ancef/Kefzol
    Great Bone penetration with long half life (surgical prophylaxis)
  17. What are aminoglycosides?
    • protein synthesis inhibitors
    • bind to 30s and 50 s ribosomal subunit
    • administered IV or IM only
  18. What are adverse effects of amino glycosides?
    • Ototoxic!
    • Nephrotoxic!
  19. What is the spectrum of gentamicin? (amino glycoside)
    • Aeorbic gram negatives
    • stap
    • strep
  20. When does gentamycin peak/tough?
    • peak= following administration
    • trough= 20-30 mins prior to nect does
  21. What do you monitor with gentamycin?
    serum creatine
  22. What does clindamycin do?
    inhibit protein biosynthesis via 50s ribosome
  23. What is the spectrum of Clindamycin?
    • Gram+
    • Anaerobes
  24. Does Clindamycin cover C. diff?
  25. Describe the metabolism of Clinamycin
    • By the liver
    • good agisnt some strains of MRSA
  26. What is an adverse effect of clindamycin?
    C. difficile
  27. What is Clindamycin prescribed for?
    open fractures only with a PCN allergy
  28. What is the spectrum fro Vancomycin?
    • ALL GRAM +
    • MRSA
    • MRSE
    • Enterococcus
    • gram + anaerobes like clostridia, corynebacteria
    • NO gram -
  29. What is an adverse effect go Vancomycin?
    • Red Man syndrome
    • Nephrotoxicity
    • ototoxic
  30. When can oral vancomycin be given?
    ONLY for pseudomembranous colitis after flagyl fails
  31. What is Vancomycin used in conjunction with? for what?
    with Zosyn for IV Abx coverage in diabetic infections for coverage of MRSA
  32. What is the spectrum of Zyvox?
    • ALL GRAM + 
    •  including ENTEROCOCCUS and MRSA
  33. what is the bioavailibility of Zyvox and why does that matter?
    100% bioavailble = only IV for those who cannot tolerate PO
  34. Adverse effects of Zyvix (5)
    • Throbocytopenia
    • Neutropenia
    • Pancytopenia
    • Neuritis
    • Peripheral neuropathy (only in prolonged >3mo use)
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Dr. Moore Intro to Surgery