An Unusual accumulation of fluid inthe interstitial space
A condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins resulting in tissue edema.
A disorder entailing deficient mineralocorticoid hormoneproduction by the adrenal cortex
Regulates sodium ion concentrationsin the extra cellular fluid.
A condition due to excessive water intake that results in net osmosis into tissue cells. This leads to severe metabolic disturbances.
aka the sodium in blood is lower than normal.
T or F?-Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human
T or F?-The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium.
T or F?- Electrolytes determine most of the chemical and physical reactions of
T or F?- Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between
compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients
T or F?- The thirst center in the brain is located in the hypothalamus.
T or F?- Dehydration can be caused by endocrine disturbances such as diabetes
mellitus or diabetes insipidus.o
T or F?- It is impossible to over hydrate because people need as much water as
they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions.
it will promote water gains in excess of electrolyte gains. sodium also decreses causing hyponaturemia. CAN CAUSE DRUNK BEHAVIOR and death.
T or F?- Water imbalance, in which output exceeds in take, causing an imbalance inbody fluids, is termed dehydration.
T or F?- Salts are lost from the body in perspiration, feces, and urine.
T or F?- Hypoproteinemia reflects a condition of unusually high levels of plasma
proteins and causes tissue edema.
Its right but just remember but that's the Right definition for HYPO!!! HYPO!!! HYPLOW
T or F?- Although the sodium content of the body may be altered, its
concentration in the ECF remains stable because of immediate
adjustments in water volume.
T or F?- Sodium is pivotal to fluid and electrolyte balance and to the homeostasis
of all body systems.
T or F?- When aldosterone release is inhibited, sodium reabsorption cannot
occur beyond the collecting tube..o
T or F?- Aldosterone stimulates the Reabsorption of sodium while enhancing
T or F?- Pressure diuresis decreases blood volume and blood pressure
T or F?- Aldosterone is secreted in response to low extracellular potassium
T or F?- To remain properly hydrated, water intake must equal water output
T or F?- The main way the kidney regulates potassium ions is to excrete them
T or F?- Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood pressure and blood volume by
inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasodilation and potassium
and water retention..
**ANP stimulates Vasodilation, fluid egression, increases glomerular filtration, salt and water excretion. can INHIBIT vasopressin, angiotensin 2, and aldosterone
T or F?- Premenstrual edema may be due to enhanced reabsorption of sodium
T or F?- Heavy consumption of salt substitutes high in potassium can present a
serious clinical problem when aldosterone release is not normal.
T or F?- Hypercalcemia causes muscle tetany.
**it causes nausea and vomiting, excessive thirst,loss of appetite, frequent urination, lethargy and fatigue, and confusion.
the tetany is in hypocalcemia, and magnesium deficiency.
T or F?- The two hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium are pituitary hormone and calcitonin.
ECF levels are regulated by PARATHYROID HORMONES. and CALCITONIN
**bones, kidneys,and small intestines are targeted when levels are too low in blood.
T or F?- Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium from
storage when serum levels are low.
Parathyroid picks it back up when levels are too low it promotes back up from the bones, small intestines, and kidneys. when they finally reached normal range PTH is inhibited
T or F?- The normal pH of blood is 7.35-7.45
T or F?- Most acidic substances (hydrogen ions) originate as byproducts of
T or F?- Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body
because they partially dissociate.
T or F?- The phosphate buffer system is relatively unimportant for buffering
** its only important in buffering the PH of the ICF and urine.
T or F?- The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system
**ability to buffer is limited by the amount of bicarbonate ions. and its the only extra cellular buffer.
T or F?- One of the most powerful and plentiful sources of buffers is the protein
**moslty powerful for ICF
PH rises- the carboxyl group realese hydrogen
PH low- amino acids groups accepts hydrogen
T or F?- As ventilation increases and more carbon dioxide is removed from the
blood, the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood decreases
T or F?-Regulation of the acid‐base system is accomplished mainly through respiratory control,and the kidneys also play a small role.
the acid balance refers to the regulation of hydrogen concentration in body fluids.
T or F?-Severe damage to the respiratory system rarely will result in acid base
T or F?-Respiratory acidosis results when lungs are obstructed and gas exchange is inefficient
True , it cant remove all the carbon dioxide causing the body fluids like blood to become too acidic.
Respiratory alkalosis- is low levels of CO2 because of breathing excessively.
T or F?-Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis.
True. the person is breathing too much causing low levels of CO2 in the body.
T or F?- Thirst is always a reliable indicator of body water need
T or F?- Blood acidity results in depression of the CNS, whereas blood alkalosis
results in over excitement of the CNS.
True, because excessive breathing is causing alot of activity in the body.
58- The body's water volume is closely tied to the level of which of the
the term HYPOtonic hydration refers to...
B) A condition that may result from renal insufficiency or drinking extraordinary amounts of water.
Hypoproteinemia is a condition of unusually low levels of plasma proteins. This problem is often characterized by ________.
C) Tissue edema
Which of the following hormones is important in the regulation of
sodium ion concentrations in the extracellular fluid?
A) renin B) aldosterone
C) antidiuretic hormone D) erythropoietin
Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that is made in the atria of the heart. The influence of this hormone is to ________.
D) Reduce blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting sodium and water retention.
Respiratory acidosis can occur when
D) the persons breathing being too shallow.
Which of the following two organs function as the most important physiological buffer systems?
B) lungs and kineys
Which of the choices below is not an essential role of salts in the body?
A) anabolism of proteins
Which of the choices below exerts primary control over sodium levels in
A) water levels B) glucocorticoids
C) ADH D) aldosterone
The fluid link between the external and internal environment is________
Newborn infants have a relatively higher________ content in their
ECF than do adults.
Whereas sodium is found mainly in the extracellular fluid, most
________ is found in the intracellular fluid.
Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and
potassium between cells and body fluids?
A) equal amounts of each ion in the cells and body fluids
B) little of either in the cells, but large amounts of each in the body
C) Na+ mainly in the cells, K+ in the body fluids
D) K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids
D- potassium mainly in the cells and sodium in the body fluids.
Problems with fluid, electrolyte, and acid base balance are particularly common in infants because of their ________.
The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is
D)the PH of ICF
The term alkaline reserve is used to describe the ________ buffer system
D) Bi carbonate
a falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to
pneumonia or emphysema indicates ________.
the movement of fluids between cellular compartments ______
D) regulated by osmotic and hydrostatic forces.
What hormone reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events
that promote vasoconstriction and sodium
ion and water retention
Which of the following is not a method for regulating the hydrogen ion
concentration in blood?
A) respiratory changes B) chemical buffer systems
C) renal mechanism D) diet
Which of the following is not a chemical buffer system?
A) phosphate B) nucleic acid
C) bicarbonate D) protein
B) Nucleic acid.
Extracellular fluid in the human body is composed of all of the
A) lymph and interstitial fluid B) glucose
C) cerebrospinal fluid D) blood plasma�
which of the following statements is true regarding fluid shifts?
A) Nonelectrolytes are the controlling factor in directing fluid shifts.
B) There are always more positive electrolytes than negative in a
solution; it is therefore impossible to follow fluid shifts.
C) Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than nonelectrolytes and
therefore have the greatest ability to cause fluid shifts.
D) Electrolytes are not as important as proteins in regulating fluid
shifts in the body.
c- Electrolytes have greater osmotic power than non electrolytes and have a greater chance for fluid shifts
W hich of the following hormones is important in stimulating water
conservation in the kidneys?
A) thymosin B) atrial natriuretic peptide
C) aldosterone D) antidiuretic hormone
D)-anti diuretic hormone
T he maintenance of the proper pH of the body fluids may be the result
A) the active secretion of OH�] into the filtrate by the kidney tubule
B) the operation of the various buffer systems in the stomach
C) control of the acids produced in the stomach
D) the control of respiratory ventilation
D- Control of respiratory ventilation
Which of the following is not a disorder of water balance?
A) edema or tissue swelling, which is usually due to an increased
capillary hydrostatic pressure
B) hypotonic hydration, in which sodium content is normal but water
content is high
C) excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion
D) xcess water in interstitial spaces due to a low level of plasma
C) excessive hydration due to excess ADH secretion
The regulation of sodium ________.
A) involves hypothalamic osmoreceptor detection of ion
B) i s due to specific sodium receptors in the hypothalamus
C) involves aldosterone, a hormone that increases sodium excretion
in the kidneys
D) is linked to blood pressure
D) is linked to blood pressure
select the correct statement about renal mechanisms of acid�]base
A) The kidneys are not able to excrete phosphoric acid.
B) Excreted hydrogen ions are unbound in the filtrate.
C) The kidneys are the most important mechanism for eliminating all
D) kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion
D) - Kidney tubule cells are able to synthesize bicarbonate ion
Blood analysis indicates a low pH, and the patient is breathing rapidly.
Given your knowledge of acid base balance, which of the following is
A) metabolic alkalosis B) metabolic acidosis
C) respiratory alkalosis D) respiratory acidosis
A patient is breathing slowly and blood pH analysis indicates an
abnormally high value. What is the likely diagnosis?
One of the major physiological factors that triggers thirst is ________.
C- rise in polar osmoality.
Annie has just eaten a large order of heavily salted french fries, some
pickled eggs, and some cheese. How will consuming this much salt
affect her physiology
D- there will be a temporary increase in blood volume.
The most important force causing net water flow across capillary walls
A- hydrostatic pressure of capillary blood.
Which of the following does not depend on the presence of electrolytes?
A) membrane polarity
B) maintenance of osmotic relations between cells and ECF
C) neuromuscular excitability
D) amount of body fat
amount of body fat
_______ occurs when carbon dioxide is eliminated faster than it is produced.
The female hormone ________ seems to decrease sodium reabsorption, thus promoting sodium and water loss by the
The preferred intracellular negative ion is ________.
The most important ECF buffer of HCl is ________
The most important hormone that regulates calcium ions in the
body is ________.
Molecules that can act reversibly as acids or bases depending upon the pH of their environment are called ________.
The breakdown of phosphorus‐containing proteins releases________ acid.
Arterial blood pH below 7.35 is called ________
acidemia or acidosis
_______ reduces blood pressure and volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and the retention of sodium ions and water.me.
atrial naturetic peptide
What provides the shortest term mechanism for preventing acid base imbalances in the body? The longest termmechanism
Chemical buffers act within a fraction of a second to resist a pH change. The longest term mechanism is the kidney system, which ordinarily requires from several hours to a day or more to effect changes in blood pH
What is the effect of acidosis on the body? Of alkalosis
When the body is in acute acidosis, the nervous system becomes so severely depressed that the person goes into a coma and death soon follows. Alkalosis causes overexcitement of the nervous system. Characteristic signs include muscle tetany, extreme nervousness, and
convulsions. Death often results from respiratory arrest.K
Describe the mechanisms by which the kidneys remove hydrogen ions from the body
Virtually all of the H+ that leaves the body in urine is secreted into the filtrate. The tubule
cells, including collecting ducts, appear to respond directly to the pH of the ECF and to
alter their rate of H+ secretion accordingly. The secreted H+ ions are obtained from the
dissociation of carbonic acid within the tubule cells. For each H+ ion actively secreted into
the tubule lumen, one sodium ion is reabsorbed into the tubule cell from the filtrate, thus
maintaining the electrochemical balance.
Describe the influence of rising PTH levels on bone, the small intestine, and the kidneys.�6
P arathyroid hormone (PTH) activates osteoclasts that break down the bone matrix,
resulting in the release of Ca2+ and PO43�] to the blood. PTH enhances intestinal absorption
of Ca2+ indirectly by stimulating the kidneys to transform vitamin D to its active form,
which is necessary for calcium absorption by the small intestine. PTH increases the
reabsorption of calcium by the renal tubules, which simultaneously decreases phosphate
When the blood becomes hypertonic (too many solutes), ADH is released. What is the effect of ADH on the kidney tubules
they release of ADH causes the kidney tubules to reabsorb excess water, resulting in the
excretion of concentrated urine.
Why would an infant with colic be suffering from respiratory alkalosis?
If the infant is uncomfortable and cries forcefully for long periods of time, this would be similar to hyperventilation. Hyperventilation would cause respiratory alkalosis because the
infant is losing carbon dioxide rapidly_
How does the respiratory system influence the buffer systems of the body
The respiratory system maintains a constant bicarbonate level in the bloodstream by
outgassing carbon dioxide. In the event of a respiratory problem the bicarbonate system
might not be a constantH�
identify and describe the operation of the three major chemical
buffers of the body..ts.
T he bicarbonate buffer system (carbonic acid plus sodium bicarbonate) acts to tie up the
hydrogen ions released by a strong acid, thus converting it to a weaker acid, which lowers
the pH only slightly. For a strong base, the carbonic acid will be forced to donate more H+
to tie up the OH�] released by the base, with the net result of replacement of a strong base
by a weak one. The pH rise is very small. The phosphate buffer system, composed of the
sodium salts of dihydrogen phosphate and monohydrogen phosphate, acts in a similar
fashion to the bicarbonate system. NaH2PO4 acts as a weak acid; Na2HPO4 acts as a weak
base. Hydrogen ions released by strong acids are tied up in weak acids; strong bases are
converted to weak bases. Amino acids of the protein buffer system release H+ when the pH
begins to rise by dissociating carboxyl groups, or bind hydrogen ions with amine groups to
form NH3+ when the pH falls.
When does a person experience greater thirst, during periods when ADH release is elicited or during periods when aldosterone release is elicited
person experiences greater thirst during periods when ADH release is elicited.dy