Personality and Stuff

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  1. Psychoanalysis
    • Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
    • the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
  2. Free Association
    In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
  3. Unconscious
    • According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
    • According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
  4. Freudian Parts of Personality
    • Id 
    • Ego
    • Superego
  5. Id
    • contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives
    • Operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
  6. Ego
    • the largely conscious "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality
    • Operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
  7. Superego
    the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
  8. Psychosexual Stages
    the childhood stages of development during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
  9. List of Psychosexual Stages
    • Oral (0-18 months)
    • Anal (18-36 months)
    • Phallic (3-6 years)
    • Latency (6-puberty)
    • Genital (puberty on)
  10. Oedipus Complex
    • according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires towards his mother and feelings of jealousy and hate for the rival father
    • occurs during the phallic stage
  11. Identification
    the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
  12. Fixation
    according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies an an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
  13. Defense Mechanisms
    in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
  14. List of Defense Mechanisms
    • Repression
    • Regression
    • Reaction Formation
    • Projection
    • Rationalization
    • Displacement
    • Denial
  15. Repression
    the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
  16. Regression
    psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
  17. Reaction Formation
    • psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites
    • Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
  18. Projection
    psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
  19. Rationalization
    defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
  20. Displacement
    psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
  21. Denial
    defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even perceive painful realities
  22. Collective Unconscious
    Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
  23. Alfred Adler
    believed that much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority
  24. Karen Horney
    believed that childhood anxiety triggers our desire for love and security
  25. Projective Tests
    a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
  26. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
    a projective test in which people express inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
  27. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    • the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach
    • Seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
  28. Self-Actualization
    • according to Maslow, one of the ultimate psychological needs that arises after basic needs are met and self-esteem is achieved
    • the motivation to fulfill one's potential
  29. Carl Rogers
    People nurture our growth by being genuine, accepting, and empathic
  30. Unconditional Positive Regard
    according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
  31. Self-concept
    all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
  32. Flaws with Humanistic Perspective
    • Description of self-actualizing is subjective
    • Rogers' idea that what truly matters is whether or not our lives can deeply satisfy who we are can lead to self-indulgence, selfishness, and an erosion of moral restraints
    • Naive and fails to appreciate the reality of our human capacity for evil
  33. Allport
    came to define personality in terms of identifiable behavior patterns
  34. Traits
    a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
  35. Personality Inventories
    a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
  36. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    • the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests
    • Originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this test is now used for many other screening purposes
  37. Empircally Defined Test
    a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
  38. Big Five Personality Factors
    • Conscientiousness
    • Agreeableness
    • Neuroticism (emotional stability vs. instablity)
    • Openness
    • Extraversion
  39. Person-Situation Controversy
    Inconsistency in behaviors make personality tests scores weak predictors of behavior
  40. Social Cognitive Perspective
    views behavior as influenced by the interaction between people's traits and their social content
  41. Reciprocal Determinism
    According to Bandura, the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment
  42. Personal Control
    the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpless
  43. External Locus of Control
    the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your own fate
  44. Internal Locus of Control
    the perception that you control your own fate
  45. Learned Helplessness
    the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
  46. Spotlight effect
    overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
  47. Self-Serving Bias
    a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
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Personality and Stuff
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