What are the three major professional issues?
-adequacy of tests
-actuarial vs clinical prediction
professional issues) theoretical concerns-what is one of the most important concerns with tests?
*it puts an upper limit on validity
professional issues) theoretical concerns- what is important for the construct that we are measuring to have?
professional issues) theoretical concerns- what are alll psychological tests based on the belief about the construct they are measuring?
that it is stable over time
professional issues) theoretical concerns- what do social cogntive personality theories argue about a person's personality?
people do not have personalities; their behavior is situationally determined
professional issues) theoretical concerns- most of the tests assume that one can measure human characteristics...
independently of the context in which they occur
professional issues) theoretical concerns- what are all psychological tests based on?
theories of human functioning
professional issues) the adequacy of tests- what is this issue on?
whether any existing tests have sufficiently sound psychometric properties to support their use
professional issues) the adequacy of tests- what is the real underlying issue?
how testing is used
professional issues) clinical vs actuarial prediction- what does this issue concern?
accuracy of predictions made by test users
professional issues) clinical vs actuarial prediction- what is a major problem regarding this topic?
clinicians rarely receive feedback on the results of their tests
*they do not find out whether or not their predictions were accurate
professional issues) clinical vs actuarial prediction- Some studies compared clinical judgement about the meaning of test results with an...
professional issues) clinical vs actuarial prediction- what is an actuarial appraoch?
using a set of rules to interpret the tests
professional issues) clinical vs actuarial prediction- how can a trained clinician improve their prediction rate? (3)
-if they have access to tests, interviews, and case history
(moral issues) human rights- are there situations in which informed consent is not legally required to take a test?
(moral issues) human rights- when should the testers make an effort to share and interpret the tests scores?
when the results can affect the subjects life
(moral issues) labeling- what is a negative reaction that can occur when labeling someone with a disease?
they can be stigmatized for life regardless if the label is true or not
(moral issues) labeling- what can a label become?
a self-fulfilling prophecy
(moral issues) labeling- what can happen if a person is labeled with somethign that is not curable or inescapable?
they may not try to make things better
(moral issues) invasion of privacy- what company protects our confidentiality?
(moral issues) invasion of privacy- when can information about a person be shared?
only when they have the person's expressed consent
*signed and witness
(moral issues) invasion of privacy- can a judge summon test data?
only if he feels it is sufficiently important in a case
(moral issues) divided loyalties- what is one probem that a psychologist might face?
who is the client?
*who should they be loyal to?
(moral issues) divided loyalties- when does this issue arise?
when the indivduals welfare is at odds with that of the institution that employs the psychologist (nursing home, etc)
(moral issues) divided loyalties- how is this issue being resolved? (2)
psychologist telling all concerned how the tests are to be used and limitations of confidentiality
responsibilities of test users and test contructors) can the best test when used innapropriately hurt the subject?
*a test that is reliable for one perosn may not be for another
responsibilities of test users and test contructors) who is responsible for the appropriateness of using the right test?
psychologist, test user
(social issues) dehumnization- when can this issue arise?
when tests are given, analyzed, and stored by computers
social issues) if the tests are far from being correct and perfect, they may still be useful if they provide what?
information that leads to better prediction and understanding than otherwise obtained
social issues) a test user must continually weigh...
risk and benefits
how are tests often paid by?
current trends)how are tests pressed to seem (3)
current trends) how are new tests based on?
same principles and theories as old tests
current trends) how are new ones justified to be? (2)
psychometrically better or more specific
current trends) what 2 characteristics reflect the new tests?
-increasing role of the science of psychology
-efforts to integrate tests with other aspects of applied psychology
current trends) are the minimum standards rising or falling?
current trends) what trend is out tehre regarding objectivity in test interpretation?
increasing objectivity in test interpretation
has greater public awareness and influence led to increase of decrease in demand for psychological services?
computerization of test) what can computers do to reduce time limit on test?
adjust item difficulty
Around which time did the psych tests gained its first real status?
what 2 things does the MMPI-RF have that is better?
-50 scales more relevant to current diagnostic thinking
Chapter 21 : ethics and future of testing