FCC1 Glossary

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  1. 1997 Reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    • The reauthorization of IDEA included two
    • significant provisions-to ensure students with disabilities had
    • access to the general education curriculum and to include them in
    • large-scale assessments with appropriate accommodations (or create
    • alternative assessments for those students who cannot participate in
    • the standard assessment).
  2. 504 Plans
    An educational plan developed to identify and design an educational program to meet the needs of an individual eligible under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
  3. AAMR
    Since 1876, AAMR has been providing leadership in the field of intellectual disabilities. AAMR is the oldest and largest interdisciplinary organization of professionals (and others) concerned about intellectual disabilities and related disabilities.
  4. Abstract level instruction
    A level of instruction where students manipulate symbols without the help of concrete objects or representational pictures or tallies.
  5. Accommodations
    The process of handling new information by altering existing schema to incorporate new and contradictory information and experiences.
  6. Accommodations
    This refers to changes in the presentation or mode of response of the testing materials and/or changes in the testing procedures without changing the construct of what is being measured. States allow students with disabilities to take assessments with certain accommodations in order to increase the number level of participation.
  7. Acquired injury
    Includes injuries caused by internal as well as external factors.
  8. Advocacy Groups
    In special education, groups of individuals who focus their efforts on lobbying for individuals with disabilities at the state and national levels.
  9. Advocacy
    Efforts by parents and professionals to establish or to improve services for children and students with exceptional needs. Self-advocacy describes efforts made by the individual who will benefit from the results of the advocacy.
  10. Americans With Disability Act of 1990 (also ADA)
    A comprehensive civil rights law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in the public and private sectors of employment, state and local governmental services, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications.
  11. Anoxia
    Results when a person loses oxygen to the brain from an illness or an accident such as stroke, choking, or drowning.
  12. Anti-inflammatories
    Help prevent asthma attacks from starting.
  13. Antidiscrimination Laws (also Civil rights laws)
    In special education, laws that extend civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities such as the Americans with Disability Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act.
  14. Antisocial behavior
    A cluster of behavior patterns including disobedience, aggression, temper tantrums, lying, stealing, and violence.
  15. Anxiety disorder
    A disorder characterized by fear and excessive worries, which results in demonstrated distress, tension, or uneasiness.
  16. Anxiety-withdrawal disorders
    Anxiety-withdrawal disorders consist of internalizing behaviors such as anxiety, fearfulness, panic, shyness, and depression.
  17. Aphasia
    An injury to certain areas of the brain that results in problems with speaking or total loss of speech. Possible causes are traumatic brain injury, lack of oxygen, stroke, or an illness that causes brain swelling.
  18. Appropriate Education
    Guaranteed for all students with disabilities by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Defined by the "benefit standard" to mean an educational program in which the student is progressing and benefiting from the instruction.
  19. Articulation
    The speakers' production of individual or sequenced speech sounds.
  20. Asperger Syndrome
    A developmental disability in which language and cognitive development are normal but the child may show a lag in motor development and impairment in emotional and social development.
  21. Assessment
    In special education, the process of collecting data through informal and formal measures and other relevant information to make decisions about a student's instructional goals and objectives and/or eligibility for services.
  22. Association for Children with Learning Disabilities (also LDA)
    LDA was formed in 1964 by a group of concerned parents on behalf of children with learning disabilities. LDA is devoted to defining and finding solutions for the broad spectrum of learning disabilities.
  23. Astigmatism
    Blurred vision caused by irregular cornea or lens.
  24. Attention deficit disorders
    Behaviors not in accordance with age-appropriate developmental expectations, including attention, impulsivity, and concentration.
  25. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    A condition characterized by severe problems of inattention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity; often found in persons with learning disabilities.
  26. Attribution theory
    Refers to the reasons given by individuals for their success or failures.
  27. Atypical
    Term used at one time or another to describe adults and children with disabilities or exceptional learning needs.
  28. Auditory processing difficulties
    The inability to recognize a difference between phoneme sounds; also the difficulty in identifying words that are the same and words that are different when the difference is a single phoneme element (big - pig).
  29. Autism spectrum disorder
    This is a range of disorders characterized by symptoms of autism that can range from mild to severe.
  30. Autism
    • A childhood disorder with onset prior to 36 months of age. It is characterized by extreme withdrawal, self-stimulation, intellectual deficits, and language disorders.
    • A disability characterized by developmental delays, which significantly affects verbal and nonverbal communication, social interaction, and educational performance. Characteristics often associated with autism include repetitive activities and resistance to environmental or daily routine changes. Included as a disability category in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
  31. Benefit Standard
    Refers to the court´s interpretation of what is considered an appropriate education for a student with a disability. In the Board Of Education v. Rowley (1982) case, the court ruled that a student is receiving an appropriate education as long as he/she is progressing and benefiting from the instructional program.
  32. Bipolar depression
    A condition characterized by extreme mood swings from depressive to manic phases.
  33. Bronchodilators
    Stop asthma episodes after they have started by opening constricted airways.
  34. Brown v. Board Of Education (1954)
    A cornerstone case in the civil rights movement in which the Supreme Court ruled that educating students in segregated facilities was inherently unequal and therefore unconstitutional. The ruling in this case was the premise for providing students with disabilities equal educational opportunities through the passage of federal legislation.
  35. Bureau of Education of the Handicapped (also BEH)
    The first separate unit established for Special Education at the federal level of government.
  36. Cataracts
    A condition caused by clouding of the lens of the eye; affects color vision and distance vision.
  37. Categorical Standard
    This is first standard or criteria that the student must meet in order to be eligible for special education services under IDEA. To meet this standard, the student must have a disability within one of the disability categories included in IDEA.
  38. Chromosomal disorder
    A defect due not to a single gene, but to an excess or deficiency of the genes contained in a whole chromosome or chromosome segment. Down's syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder (1 out of 800). Affected individuals have an extra copy of chromosome 21.
  39. Chronic
    Applies to a disability that is ongoing and impedes an individuals ability to learn without special services or reasonable accommodation offered in the general or special education classroom.
  40. Civil Rights Act (1954)
    Federal legislation passed during the Civil Rights Movement that prohibited discrimination on the basis of race/ethnicity and gender. The passage of this act laid the groundwork for future antidiscrimination laws on the basis of disability.
  41. Classification
    Refers to the process of identifying and placing students into appropriate disability categories.
  42. Cleft lip/plate
    A condition in which a person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity or the upper lip.
  43. Clinical diagnosis
    A determination of a disability/disorder that meet specific criteria (for example, as defined by DSM) and has been professionally identified.
  44. Closed head injury
    Results when the brain whips back and forth during an accident, causing it to bounce off the inside of the skull.
  45. Comprehensive Assessment
    Measurement procedures that look at the whole student in the context of his/her environment. For example, a variety of assessment tools and strategies should be used gather formal and informal information rather than a single indicator such as an IQ test. This procedure is recommended for students from culturally diverse backgrounds.
  46. Computed Axial Tomography (also CAT : CAT scanning : CT : CAT-Scan : Computed Tomography (CT) imaging)
    An imaging technique that develops a combination of soft tissue, bone, and blood vessels to assist medical professionals identify difficulties in the body.
  47. Concrete instruction
    A method of teaching in which the child manipulates real objects of learning.
  48. Concussion
    A condition of impaired functioning of the brain as a result of a violent blow or impact.
  49. Conduct disorders
    A group of behavior disorders including disobedience, disruptiveness, fighting, and tantrums.
  50. Conduct disorders
    Include a group of behavior disorders including disobedience, disruptiveness, fighting, and tantrums.
  51. Congenital Disabilities
    Describes the presence of limiting characteristics or conditions of an individual that exist at birth. Examples are congenital deafness or blindness.
  52. Congenital
    Refers to an impairment that is present from birth or from the time very near birth.
  53. Context clues
    Clues that help readers recognize words through the meaning or context of the sentence or paragraph in which the words appear.
  54. Continuum Of Services
    A range of placement options and related services provided to students with disabilities that range from the most to least segregated educational settings.
  55. Control sentences
    Sentences that are used after the social story is read. The student then writes sentences to help her remember the information from the social story (often considered optional).
  56. Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders
    The official division of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) committed to promoting and facilitating the education and general welfare of children and youth with emotional or behavioral disorders.
  57. Council for Exceptional Children (also CEC)
    The largest international professional organization dedicated to improving educational outcomes for individuals with exceptionalities, students with disabilities, and/or the gifted.
  58. Council for Learning Disabilities (also CLD)
    An international organization concerned about issues related to students with learning disabilities.
  59. Criterion-Referenced Test
    A measure to ascertain a student's performance compared to a set criterion. This type of test determines whether or not a student has mastered a particular skill in an area. Examples include the Metropolitan Achievement Test and the Iowa Basic Skills Test.
  60. Cultural and Linguistic Bias
    Refers to the disadvantage that students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds may have when an IQ test is used to determine eligibility in special education. The use of IQ testing for these students is controversial because some test items are biased against them. Additionally, the sample norm group that the student's performance is compared to is generally made up of middle class Caucasian students who do not have disabilities, which may not be representative of the student's peer group.
  61. Deaf-Blindness
    A disability category within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act for students who are deaf as well as blind. The services are provided to students with both hearing and visual impairments that are so severe that they impede communication and therefore cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.
  62. Deaf
    One whose hearing disability precludes successful processing of linguistic information through audition, with or without a hearing aid.
  63. Decibels
    Unit for measuring the relative loudness of sounds
  64. Department of Education (also DOE)
    An independent unit within the federal government that oversees all of the educational offices, programs, and agencies (including those for special education) at national level.
  65. Descriptive sentences
    Sentences that tell where situations occur, who is involved, what they are doing, and why.
  66. Diabetic retinopathy
    A condition resulting from interference with the blood supply to the retina. It is the fastest growing cause of blindness.
  67. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (also DSM IV)
    Better known as the DSM-IV, the manual is published by the American Psychiatric Association and covers all mental health disorders for both children and adults. It also lists known causes of these disorders, statistics in terms of gender, age at onset, and prognosis as well as some research concerning the optimal treatment approaches.
  68. Dialect
    A regional variety of a language, such as when someone speaks English using terms or pronunciations used only in a particular region.
  69. Directive sentences
    Sentences that tell a student what to do.
  70. Disability
    A functional limitation resulting from a condition. A disability may result in medical, social, or learning difficulties, which significantly interferes with an individual's growth or development.
  71. Disabled
    An individual who has a condition that is functionally limiting. The definition of who is considered disabled varies with different legislation.
  72. Disproportionate Representation
    This term refers to the large proportion of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds being referred to and receiving special education services. This situation may be the result of unfair and biased evaluation procedures.
  73. Division for Children with Learning Disabilities (also DLD)
    DLD is one 17 divisions of the Council for Exceptional Children. DLD is the largest international professional organization focused on learning disabilities.
  74. Down syndrome
    Or Down's syndrome is the most common and readily identifiable chromosomal condition associated with intellectual disabilities. It is caused by a chromosomal abnormality: for some unexplained reason, an accident in cell development results in 47 instead of the usual 46 chromosomes.
  75. Due Process
    In special education this refers to procedures and policies that were established in P.L. 94-142 to ensure equal educational opportunities for all children, including children with disabilities.
  76. Dyscalculia
    A term indicating lack of ability to perform mathematical functions. The condition is associated with neurological dysfunction.
  77. Dysgraphia
    Often associated with poor handwriting or the inability to perform the motor movements required for handwriting.
  78. Dyslexia
    A severe reading disorder where the individual has difficulty or is not able to learn to read or does not acquire fluent and efficient reading skills.
  79. Dysthymia
    A form of depression that is less severe, but chronic symptoms prevent individuals from functioning optimally.
  80. Echolalia
    A meaningless repetition or imitation of words that have been spoken.
  81. Education Of All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (also P.L. 94-142 : Public Law 94-142)
    First compulsory education law, which mandated a free appropriate public education for all students with disabilities between the ages of 3 and 21.
  82. Eligibility and Implementation
    This is a stage during the nondiscriminatory evaluation process. After the assessment evaluations are conducted, the evaluation team must decide whether the student has a disability and need special education services. If so, the evaluation team plans a separate conference to develop an Individualized Education Program for the student.
  83. Eligibility Criteria
    Criteria to determine who is qualified for a specified program. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act has a two-part eligibility criteria-the student must have a disability and require special education services because of the disability.
  84. Eligibility determinations
    The processes used by school personnel (e.g., teachers, school psychologists, guidance counselors) to determine whether a child has a disability and whether the academic, social and/or behavioral problems associated with this disability require the need of specialized services.
  85. Emotional Disturbance
    A disability category within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act for students whose inability to control their emotions adversely affects their learning and social interactions with others
  86. Entitlements
    Benefits that a person can receive if he/she meets certain eligibility criteria. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is an example of an entitlement program for children with disabilities.
  87. Equal Educational Opportunity
    Under IDEA, students with disabilities are entitled to the full educational opportunities as those given to students who do not have disabilities (at no cost to the parents).
  88. Equal Protection Clause
    A provision included in the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution that guarantees the same rights and benefits (i.e. equal protection of the laws) to all citizens with respect to government.
  89. Evaluation Team (also School-wide Student Study Team)
    This team is developed at the beginning of the nondiscrimination evaluation process during the pre-referral stage. Members of the team may include the student's general education teacher, parents, school psychologist, special education teacher, school counselor, and related services personnel.
  90. Evaluation
    This is the last stage of the nondiscriminatory evaluation process. During this step, the evaluation/IEP team meets to determine whether or not the IEP is appropriate for the student and if instructional goals are being met. An evaluation must be conducted at least once a year and more often if requested by the student's teacher or parent. A formal reevaluation must be conducted every three years to determine if the student is still eligible for special education.
  91. Exceptional learning needs
    Current term used to describe students who require special education because of intellectual, physical, behavioral, or sensory reasons. The term is also used to describe children who are gifted and talented.
  92. Expressive language
    Refers to what they say or write.
  93. Family Educational Rights And Privacy Act (also FERPA)
    This act gives parents the right to access or challenge the content of their child's school records and the right to object to the release of certain information about their child in order to protect family privacy.
  94. Far-point copying
    The copying of material from a distant source to a piece of paper.
  95. Field of vision
    The entire area of which an individual is visually aware when that individual is directing his or her gaze straight ahead (typically, 160 degrees).
  96. Fourteenth Amendment
    This amendment in the U.S. constitution guarantees all students (including those with disabilities) the right to equal protection and equal educational opportunities.
  97. Fragile X syndrome
    Fragile X syndrome is named after a site on the long arm of the X chromosome that is elongated and appears partly broken or 'fragile'. The spectrum of Fragile X syndrome ranges from normal development to developmental delay, learning disabilities, mild to severe intellectual disability, autistic-like behavior and attention problems.
  98. Free And Appropriate Public Education (also FAPE)
    Requirement under P.L. 108-446 to provide special education and related services to students with disabilities at public expense and in conformity with the student's individualized education program (IEP).

    • FAPE is required for all children regardless of
    • their disability in the preK-12 setting.
  99. Frequency
    Means how often the behavior occurs.
  100. Full Inclusion Movement
    As more parents and advocates were dissatisfied with attempts to mainstream their children with disabilities with children who did not have disabilities, they pushed for students with disabilities to receive special education and related services in the general education setting at all times.
  101. Functional Standard
    This is second standard or criteria that the student must meet in order to be eligible for special education services under IDEA. If it has already been determined that the student has a disability, the student meets the functional standard if he/she requires special education services because of the disability.
  102. General Education Class
    Placement option in the general education program which represents the most inclusive setting for students with disabilities.
  103. Generalization
    The use of previously learned knowledge or skill under conditions other than those under which it was originally learned.
  104. Glaucoma
    A condition of excessive pressure to the eyeball; the cause is unknown; if untreated, blindness results.
  105. Grace Fernald
    An early educator of children with learning disabilities who used a kinesthetic approach involving writing in the air as well as tracing words in large written or scripted format.
  106. Grant-In-Aid
    Federal assistance given to states to help cover their excess special education costs as long as they agree to comply with the mandates of IDEA.
  107. Grapheme
    The written representation of a phoneme sound.
  108. Handicapped
    The consequences of a disability when it causes an individual to function measurably lower intellectually, physically, or emotionally than individuals without disabilities. Usage of this term may have negative connotations.
  109. Hearing Impairments
    A loss in the ability to hear that adversely affects a student's educational performance. The loss may range from a mild loss to a total lack of hearing ability (deafness). It is also a disability category within IDEA.
  110. Hertz
    The frequency of a sound is measured in a unit called a hertz.
  111. High-Stakes Assessment
    An accountability system of testing in which decisions for graduation or grade-level promotion are made on the basis of a single indicator such as the student´s performance on a statewide assessment.
  112. Homebound/Hospital Setting
    Special education instruction provided by specially trained personnel in the home or in a hospital setting to students who are unable to attend school (usually on a short-term basis).
  113. Hypernasality
    A speech problem in which air cannot pass through a speaker's nose as it is supposed to and comes through the mouth instead. The speaker may sound as if the nose is being held.
  114. Hyperopia (also Farsightedness)
    Vision of near objects is affected, usually results when the eyeball is too short.
  115. Idiosyncratic
    A term that means peculiar to the individual.
  116. Impaired
    Term used at one time or another to describe adults and children with disabilities or limiting conditions.
  117. Impartial Hearing Officer
    A neutral and trained professional who presides over the proceedings during a due process hearing between parents and educational agencies.
  118. Impartial Hearing
    If parents want to challenge the decisions of the educational agency, they may exercise their due process rights and settle their disputes in an impartial hearing. The hearing may be held at school or in court, and there is an impartial hearing officer present.
  119. Incidence
    This refers to the number of individuals who at some time in their lives might be considered to have exceptional needs.
  120. Individualized Education Program (also IEP)
    A written document required by P.L. 108-446 (and subsequently IDEA) for students with disabilities (ages 3-21) that includes a statement of the student's current level of functioning, annual goals, short-term instructional goals and objectives, services to be provided (with dates and personnel responsible), and evaluation procedures and criteria.
  121. Individualized Family Service Plan (also IFSP)
    A written document required by P.L. 99-457 for infants/toddlers with disabilities (birth through two) that includes the child's present level of development, the family's needs related to the child's development, services provided to the child and family, evaluation procedures, and transition procedures from an early intervention program into a preschool program.
  122. Individualized instruction
    One of the key tenets of special education. The specific instruction and types of services provided to the student is tailored to fit the student and wholly depends on the educational needs of the student.
  123. Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (also IDEA):
    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and its amendments replaced P.L. 94-142. It is a federal law stating that to receive funds under the act, every school system in the nation must provide a free, appropriate public education for every child between the ages of three to twenty-one, regardless of how seriously he or she may be disabled.
  124. Information-processing deficits
    A disorder in the flow of information, the memory system, and the interrelationships among the elements of cognitive processing.
  125. Informed Consent
    In special education, refers to the act of parents giving their consent for procedures or decisions related to their child after being presented with information that they understand. Schools must obtain the parent's informed consent before any student is initially placed into special education.
  126. Intensity
    Refers to the pressure of a sound.
  127. Intermediate Units
    Agencies between the local and state levels of government that provide a wide array of services to students in general education as well as special education. Their history in special education has been directly related to the advantage of pooling resources together in order to provide special education services for a small number of students in smaller rural districts.
  128. International Dyslexia Association (also IDA)
    A non-profit organization dedicated to helping individuals with dyslexia, their families and the communities that support them.
  129. IQ Test (also Intelligence Quotient)
    An IQ test is used to estimate the student's intellectual ability level (i.e., aptitude). An IQ test such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV (WISC-IV) is a norm-referenced test because it compares the performance of the student against the performance of a sample of his/her peers (i.e., the norm group). Currently, there is much disagreement in the field whether IQ tests should be used as part of the assessment to identify students with learning disabilities.
  130. Itinerant Teachers
    Personnel who are trained to provide direct services to students with disabilities and provide consultation to the general education classroom teachers.
  131. Labeling
    In special education, refers to the names or categories used to classify individuals who exhibit different behaviors or have specific conditions. The effects of labeling may have long-lasting and negative consequences.
  132. Language disorders
    Problems in receiving, understanding, and formulating ideas and information.
  133. Learned helplessness
    • A trait among students with mild disabilities in which they exhibit passiveness and do not take on the responsibility of their own learning.
    • The belief that one's own efforts will not be sufficient to positively affect outcomes.
  134. Least Restrictive Environment (also LRE)
    One of the key principles in P.L. 94-142 which encourages students with disabilities to be educated in the general education setting (with peers who are not disabled) to the maximum extent appropriate.
  135. Left hemisphere
    The left hemisphere of the brain receives sensory information from and controls movement of the right side of the body.
  136. Left temporal lobe
    Situated at what one might call the bottom of the cerebrum. There we find the nerve cells and interconnections that create the temporal-sequential relationship between the units of a sentence, which have a direct impact on one's ability to read.
  137. Local Educational Agencies (also LEA)
    The units or agencies at the local level of government that is responsible for providing public school education.
  138. Locus of control
    The degree to which individual perceive that there is a connection between their actions and the outcomes achieved.
  139. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (also MRI)
    An imaging technique used primarily in medical settings to produce high quality images of the inside of the human body, specifically the brain.
  140. Mainstreaming (also Integration)
    The practice of providing instructional and related services to students with disabilities in the general education setting.
  141. Major Life Activities
    In Section 504 and ADA, one component of whether an individual is considered to have a disability or not is if he/she has an impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities. Examples of major life activities include learning, working, and breathing.
  142. Maladaptive behavior
    Inappropriate behaviors that exceed in frequency, duration, and degree beyond what is considered typical or normal.
  143. Mandate
    In special education, a requirement from the federal or state level that delineates specific tasks or steps to be carried out.
  144. Manualists
    Advocate for the use of sign language as the primary mode of communication for deaf individuals.
  145. Manually coded english
    Any sign language system that represents English in a visual-gestural modality mechanism.
  146. Marion Monroe
    A well-known psychologist and educator; Mrs. Monroe authored Growing into Reading, and other professional books.
  147. Mental age
    Mental age for an intelligence test score is expressed as the chronological age for which a given level of performance is average or typical. An individual's mental age is then divided by his chronological age and multiplied by 100, yielding an intelligence quotient (IQ).
  148. Mental Retardation
    This term refers to a significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning (IQ of 70 or less), which is manifested during the developmental period and also coexists with impairments in adaptive behavior. It is also a disability category within IDEA.
  149. Mild brain injury
    Traumatically induced physiological disruption of brain function, as manifested by at least one of the following: (a) any period of loss of consciousness, (b) any loss of memory for events immediately before or after the injury, and (c) any alteration in mental state at the time of the injury.
  150. Mild intellectual disabilities
    Often referred to individuals with intellectual disabilities whose IQ falls between 50 and 75.
  151. Mills v. D.C. Board of Education (1972)
    In this case, the Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to exclude students from school programs who were identified as having behavior problems, emotional disturbance, hyperactivity, or mental retardation. Regardless of the degree of their disabilities, these students also had a right to an appropriate education.
  152. Mnemonics
    Specific techniques involving the use of memory cues that are used for assisting storage of memory.
  153. Model
    To demonstrate or show the child what he is supposed to do instead of what he is NOT supposed to do.
  154. Moderate intellectual disabilities
    Often referred to individuals with intellectual disabilities whose IQ falls between 40 and 55
  155. Mood disorder
    Also known as affective disorders, are characterized by their extremes in highs and lows in both intensity and duration.
  156. Motivating factors
    Tangible objects, breaks, tokens, or hugs that encourage the child to work.
  157. Motor neurons
    The neurons that activate a person's muscle cells; a neuron is one of the conducting cells of the nervous system.
  158. Multiple Disabilities
    This term refers to a concomitant (combination) of impairments, which result in such severe educational problems that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs designed only for one of the impairments. It is also a disability category within IDEA.
  159. Muscular dystrophy
    Refers to a group of nine hereditary muscle-destroying disorders that vary in their inheritance pattern, their age of onset, the muscles initially attacked, and their rate of progression
  160. Mytopia (also Nearsightedness)
    Vision of distant objects is affected, usually results when the eyeball is too long.
  161. National Center for Educational Outcomes (also NCEO)
    A national center funded by the federal government that studies and reports how states include students with disabilities (with appropriate accommodations) in their large-scale (e.g., statewide) assessments or develops alternate assessments for students who cannot take the standard assessment. The NCEO also makes recommendations on which accommodations are considered appropriate for students with disabilities.
  162. National Institute of Health (also NIH)
    The steward of medical and behavioral research for the Nation. It is an Agency under the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
  163. National Institute of Mental Health
    One of 27 components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Federal government's principal biomedical and behavioral research agency. NIH is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
  164. National Institute on Mental Health (also NIMH)
    One of 27 components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Federal government's principal biomedical and behavioral research agency.
  165. Near-point copying
    The copying of material from a model on one's desk to a piece of paper.
  166. Neuroimaging
    The process of capturing images of the brain to better understand strengths and weaknesses in its development. Examples include MRIs, CTs, SPECTs, PETs, Carotid Ultrasound, and Transcranial Doppler.
  167. Neurologists
    Experts who study the development of the brain and related disabilities that result from inappropriate development, trauma, or the like.
  168. Neurotransmitters
    Chemical involved in sending messages between neurons in the brain.
  169. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
    This federal act (P.L. 107-110) requires states to test all third- through eighth-grade students (including students with disabilities) annually in math and reading as well as the English proficiency of students with limited English skills.
  170. Nondiscriminatory Evaluation
    A key principle in IDEA. This refers to assessing the abilities and needs of the individual student in a fair and unbiased manner to plan for an appropriate education based on the student's strengths, weaknesses, and exceptional learning needs.
  171. Nonlinguistic cues
    Includes body, posture, facial expressions, gestures, eye contact, head and body movement, and physical proximity.
  172. Norm-Referenced Test
    A type of measurement in which the student's performance is compared to a sample group of students who are considered a peer group or students at the same grade level. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children IV (WISC-IV) is an example of a norm-referenced test.
  173. Normalization
    This principle addresses the provision of ensuring that individuals with disabilities (especially individuals with mental retardation) have life patterns resembling members in the general community as much as possible.
  174. Occupational therapy
    A program which delivers instructional activities and materials to help children and adults with disabilities learn how to participate in useful activities.
  175. Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services (also OSERS)
    A major unit within the Department of Education that was established to provide leadership in Special Education and Rehabilitation for individuals and students with disabilities.
  176. Office of Special Education Programs (also OSEP)
    A major unit within the Department of Education that was established at the same time as OSERS. OSEP is responsible for implementing and monitoring compliance of IDEA. Other program areas within OSEP include personnel preparation, State Improvement Grants, research projects, and model and delivery systems.
  177. Open head injury
    Results when a specific area or focal point of the brain is injured. A gunshot wound would cause an open head injury. The types of changes in personality or cognitive functioning depend on the area of the brain affected.
  178. Oppositional defiant disorder
    A pattern of behavior characterized by active noncompliance and other forms of hostile responses to requests by teachers and parents.
  179. Oralists
    Advocate the use of speech and speech reading for communication for deaf individuals.
  180. Orthopedic impairment
    • A disability caused by disorders to the musculoskeletal system.
    • A deficit in movement and mobility caused by physical impairments, especially those related to the bones, joints, and muscles. It is a disability category within IDEA.
  181. Orton-Gillingham Method
    Uses structured, systematic, multi-sensory (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile) teaching methods. This approach is an alternative language arts approach for students with dyslexia and other students who are not learning through traditional methods.
  182. Other health impaired
    A category included in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that includes conditions that result in limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness with respect to the educational environment, and that adversely affect a student's educational progress. Chronic and acute conditions are included, but conditions primarily affecting the musculoskeletal systems are not included.
  183. Overrepresentation
    This term refers to the disproportionate number of students from culturally and linguistically diverse students represented in special education programs for non-congenital disabilities such as emotional disturbance and learning disabilities.
  184. P.L. 99-457
    In 1986, Congress passed P.L. 99-457 and extended IDEA early intervention benefits to infants and toddlers with disabilities aged birth to 3.
  185. Paralinguistic behaviors
    Nonlanguage sounds (e.g., oohh, laughter) and speech modifications (e.g., variations in pitch, intonation, rate of delivery, pauses) that change the form and meaning of a message.
  186. Paraplegia
    Refers to the impairment and limited use or no use of the arms.
  187. Paraprofessional
    These personnel are also referred to as teacher aides. Whether in general education classrooms or special classes, paraprofessionals can provide meaningful support to students with disabilities.
  188. Perinatal injury
    Injury that occurs at birth.
  189. Perspective
    Sentences that describe the reactions and feelings of the student and of other people.
  190. Pervasive developmental disorders
    A severe developmental disorder characterized by abnormal social relations, including bizarre mannerisms, inappropriate social behavior, and unusual or delayed speech and language.
  191. Phenylketonuria (also PKU)
    • A genetic condition that prevents the metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.
    • An inherited metabolic disease that can cause severe intellectual disabilities; can now be detected at birth and the detrimental effects prevented with a special diet.
  192. Phonics
    The word-recognition strategy in which the reader matches a sound to a written letter or letter combinations.
  193. Physical therapy
    A program designed to help people with disabilities develop and maintain muscular and orthopedic capability and make correct and useful movement.
  194. Pictorial icons
    Pictures that represent the action or object the teacher wants to communicate to the child.
  195. Pidgin sign language
    Refers to the use of signs from American Sign Language in English word order but without the grammatical complexity of either language.
  196. Portfolio Assessment
    A technique for evaluating a student broadly for special education eligibility. A portfolio assessment is a documented collection of the student's work and progress over an extended period of time. It has the advantage of allowing the team to examine examples of the student's schoolwork from different subjects as well as over time. Recommended for usage with students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds.
  197. Positron Emission Tomography (also PET : PET-Scan)
    A medical imaging technique that can identify and diagnose difficulties in the body and brain development including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, tumors, and brain damage.
  198. Postconcussional syndrome
    Refers to a mild closed head injury that may not show damage on medical test but results in changes in personality or cognitive functioning.
  199. Postlingual deafness
    Deafness occurring after the development of speech and language
  200. Postnatal injury
    Injury that occurs after birth.
  201. Prelingual deafness
    Refers to deafness occurring at birth or early in life prior to the development of speech and language.
  202. Prenatal injury
    Injury that occurs prior to birth.
  203. Prereferral Interventions
    A group of suggested interventions for a specific student that can be used at home or at school. The primary intent of implementing prereferral interventions is to make sure that the teacher and school staff have tried all possible alternatives for the student in the general education classroom before making a formal referral for special education. An example is to make certain the student is not required to learn more information than he/she is capable of at any one time.
  204. Prereferral Process
    This is the second stage after screening during the nondiscriminatory evaluation. During this stage, the student is brought to the attention of the School-wide Student Study Team (SSST) made up of members of the school staff and the student's primary teacher. The SSST team sets a time to meet with the student's parent (if possible) and discusses the nature of the student's difficulties, interventions that are already in place, and modifications and interventions that should be tried in the general education classroom and/or at home.
  205. Prevalence
    This is the number or percentage of individuals who have a disability condition at a given time.
  206. Procedural Safeguards
    The notice of procedural safeguards is a written document provided to the parents that explains all of the parents' rights under IDEA including independent educational evaluations, access to school records, confidentiality of records, and complaints against the SEA or LEA. This must be presented to parents in a manner that is comprehensible to them (e.g., in their native language).
  207. Profound intellectual disabilities
    Often referred to individuals with intellectual disabilities whose IQ falls between 25 and 40.
  208. Psychopathology
    A process that focuses on signs and symptoms of mental disorders, tries to describe, operationalize and systemize them, for example, in a hierarchical model.
  209. Public policy
    The social and legal procedures that act as guidelines for a particular period in time.
  210. Pull-out programs
    Educational program in the K-12 school environment where students with disabilities are separated from the general education setting and served in a separate classroom for specific educational and related service programs.
  211. Pullout Services
    The emphasis on normalization for individuals with mental retardation concurrently produced the resource room as an instructional alternative for students with mild disabilities. Students with mild disabilities are placed in the general education or special class and "pulled out" for part-time intensive or remedial instruction.
  212. Quadriplegia
    Refers to the weakness or paralysis of all four extremities: both arms and legs.
  213. Reading comprehension
    Refers to understanding the meaning of what is read.
  214. Receptive language
    Refers to people understanding what they hear or read.
  215. Referral
    This is the stage after the prereferral process during the nondiscriminatory evaluation. This is an important step as the referral formally begins the process of determining eligibility for special education. If the general education teacher and SSST have exhausted all of the prereferral interventions and the student still needs additional assistance, the teacher
  216. Regular Education Initiative (also REI)
    An initiative from the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services sponsored by Madeline Will in 1986 that advocated the integration of general and special education into one educational system for all students.
  217. Related Services
    Additional services provided to students with disabilities by trained personnel to give them access to their instructional programs. These services include but are not limited to physical and occupational therapy, speech therapy, counseling, and transportation.
  218. Residential Facility
    A program alternative in which students with disabilities receive educational services in a public or private 24-hour residential facility for greater than 50 percent of the school day. This placement is considered a very restrictive environment.
  219. Resonance
    The perceived quality of an individual's voice.
  220. Resource Room
    A program option for students with disabilities in which the student is placed in a general education classroom but goes to a separate room (i.e., resource room) for part of the school day to receive remedial or supplemental instruction from the resource room teacher.
  221. Response-to-Intervention (RTI)
    A three tiered system of intervention in response to demonstrated and scientifically measured academic and behavioral needs. Each tier becomes more focused and individualized based on the severity of need. RTI is intended to be an early intervention to prevent students from needing special education services. Students´ progress are closely monitored to determine if the intervention is working and make adjustments to the intervention if needed.
  222. Retinitis pigmentosa
    A hereditary condition resulting in degeneration of the retina; causes a narrowing of the field of vision and affects night vision.
  223. Right hemisphere
    The right hemisphere of the brain receives sensory information from and controls movement of the left side of the body.
  224. Samuel Kirk
    A pioneer in the field of learning disabilities, was the first to use and define the term learning disabilities to identify a population of children who had challenges in learning but not due to previously identified disabilities (1963).
  225. Samuel Orton (1879 - 1948)
    Attempted to explain the occurrence of language disabilities in children who had not suffered brain injury yet displayed symptoms similar to those exhibited by the adults who had sustained language loss.
  226. Schizophrenia
    A pervasive and severe psychotic condition characterized by distortions in thinking and bizarre behaviors.
  227. School Psychologist
    During the assessment process, a school psychologist is usually consulted if the student is experiencing academic difficulties. The school psychologist is responsible for administering or arranging for the administration of appropriate evaluation instruments and compiling relevant information from appropriate sources. Once the data is collected and analyzed, he/she formulates recommendations based on the student's performance and shares them with the evaluation team.
  228. Screening
    This is the first structured stage of the nondiscriminatory evaluation process. Screening may be formally planned procedures that every student goes through such as vision and hearing tests. Screening is typically done by the student's general education classroom teacher through the use of informal tests, skills inventories, criterion measures, or day-to-day observations.
  229. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
    A federal law that covers all agencies and institutions receiving financial assistance that requires that no otherwise qualified handicapped individual shall be excluded from participation in program or activity (e.g., college, university or other post-secondary institution, a public system of higher education).
  230. Seizure
    A sudden alteration of consciousness usually accompanied by motor activity and/or sensory phenomena; caused by an abnormal discharge of electrical energy in the brain.
  231. Self-concept
    The feeling within themselves of how the world perceives them.
  232. Self-determination
    The ability of individuals to make the choices that allow them to exercise control over their own lives, to achieve the goals to which they aspire and to acquire the skills and resources necessary to participate fully and meaningfully in society.
  233. Self-stimulation
    Repetitive behavior that has no apparent purpose other than providing the person with some type of stimulation.
  234. Semantics
    The component of spoken and written language that focuses on the meaning of phrases, sentences, and more complex and longer expressions.
  235. Semiconcrete-level instruction
    A level of instruction where graphic representations are substituted for actual objects.
  236. Separate School Facility
    A program option for students with disabilities in which they receive special education and related services in a special day school for students with disabilities (private or public) for greater than 50 percent of the school day. This is considered to be significantly more restrictive than the special class in a neighborhood school.
  237. Sight words
    Words that a student recognizes instantly, without hesitation or further analysis.
  238. Skull fracture
    A break in the bony framework of the head that protects the brain.
  239. Social competence
    Several components innate to individuals, all of which are important to being liked, accepted, and self-confident
  240. Social competence
    The ability to respond appropriately in social situations and to carry out the functions associated with independent living.
  241. Social maladjustment
    An individual's inability to cope with social situations. As a result, an individual may exhibit aggressive behaviors.
  242. Social perception
    The ability to understand social situations, as well as sensitivity to the feelings of others.
  243. Socialized aggressive conduct disorder
    Antisocial externalized behaviors that include involvement with peers in illegal acts or behaviors that violate normative expectations.
  244. Special Class (also self-contained classes)
    • An educational setting outside of the general education classroom where students with similar exceptional learning needs receive special education and related services from a trained special education teacher.
    • Educational programs developed for the K-12 school environment where students with special needs are served in a separate class from the general education classroom.
  245. Special Education
    As defined by P.L. 94-142, special education refers to specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parent, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability.
  246. Special Needs
    A term used to describe children or students who have exceptional intellectual, learning, behavioral, emotional, or medical needs that require special education and related services.
  247. Specific Learning Disabilities
    As defined by P.L. 94-142, disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language; may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. This disability category has both inclusionary and exclusionary criteria for identification and classification purposes.
  248. Speech disorders
    Disorders of articulation, voice, and/or fluency.
  249. Speech/Language Impairments
    Impairments in speech or language such as articulation or fluency problems that significantly interferes with an individual's ability to communicate. It is a disability category within IDEA.
  250. Spina bifida cystica
    A malformation of the spinal column in which a tumor-like sac herniates through an opening or cleft on the infant's back.
  251. Spina bifida meningocele
    A form of spina bifida cystica where the sac contains spinal fluid but no nerve tissue
  252. Spina bifida myelomeningocele
    The most serious from of spina bifida. It generally results in weakness or paralysis in the legs and lower body, and inability to voluntarily control the bladder or bowel, and the presence of other orthopedic problems.
  253. Spina bifida occulta
    A very mild condition in which a small slit is present in one or more of the vertebral structures.
  254. State Educational Agencies (also SEA)
    The department at the state level of government that is responsible for monitoring public school education.
  255. State Improvement Grants (also SIG)
    A program area administered by the Office of Special Education Programs. SIGs are federal assistance grants given to states to help them improve services and instructional programs for students with disabilities.
  256. Student-Study Team (also SST)
    Typically, each school has its own team for problem solving and for providing support for teachers and students who are experiencing difficulties. This team is referred to as the school-wide student study team (SST) and is typically made up of a general and special education teacher, school psychologist, student counselor, reading specialist, and related services personnel.
  257. Supported education
    Education in integrated settings for people with severe disabilities for whom postsecondary education has not traditionally occurred or for people for whom postsecondary education has been interrupted or intermittent as a result of a severe disability, and who, because of their handicap, need ongoing support services to be successful in the education environment.
  258. Syntax
    A component of language that involves the knowledge and application of the rules governing the use of classes of words - the grammar of language
  259. Target behavior
    The behavior that the child displays and that the social story is meant to change or diminish.
  260. The Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps (also TASH)
    An international association of people with disabilities, their family members, other advocates, and professionals fighting for a society in which inclusion of all people in all aspects of society is the norm.
  261. The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (also FMRI)
    A neuroimaging technique that provides high resolution, noninvasive reports of neural activity detected by a blood oxygen level.
  262. Topographical classification system
    Ascribes a disability to the part of the brain that is affected.
  263. Total communication
    An approach for teaching students with hearing impairments that blends oral and manual techniques.
  264. Tourette disorder
    A neurological disorder beginning in childhood in which stereotyped, repetitive motor movements are accompanied by multiple vocal outbursts that may include grunting noises or socially inappropriate words or statements.
  265. Toxins
    Poisons produced by certain animals, plants, or bacteria. When exposed to or ingested during prenatal development can lead to developmental disabilities within the child.
  266. Transition Services
    Coordination of activities for a child with a disability to ensure a smooth transition from one school to another and for post school activities such as work and post-secondary schooling.
  267. Traumatic Brain Injury
    An acquired injury to the head caused by an external physical force that produces severe a memory disorder, a psychosocial impairment, or both. This disability category was added to the reauthorization of P.L. 94-142 with the renaming to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
  268. Traumatic brain injury
    Caused by an external physical force, resulting in impaired functioning in one or more areas. Educational performance is adversely affected. The injury may be open or closed.
  269. Undersocialized aggressive conduct disorder
    Antisocial externalizing behaviors that are aggressive, disruptive and noncompliant.
  270. United States Office of Education (also USOE)
    Prior to the Department of Education, the major division at the federal government responsible for monitoring public education at the national level.
  271. Verbosity
    A term used to refer to the excessive use of words.
  272. Visual acuity
    The term that describes the clarity with which a person sees. The visual acuity considered typical is 20/20.
  273. Visual disability (also Blindness)
    Including blindness is defined by IDEA as an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance.
  274. Visual Impairments
    A measured loss of any of the visual functions such as acuity, visual fields, color vision, or binocular vision which adversely affects a student's educational performance. It is a disability category within IDEA.
  275. Visual-spatial difficulties
    The inability to identify, organize and interpret sensory data received by the individual through the eye.
  276. Vocal nodules
    Small knots or lumps on the speech mechanism that result from the rubbing together of the vocal fold edges.
  277. Vocational Education
    Organized educational programs which are directly related to the preparation of individuals for paid or unpaid employment, or for additional preparation for a career requiring other than a baccalaureate or advanced degree (from Vocational Education Act of 1963).
  278. Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children IV (also WISC-IV)
    A norm-referenced IQ test that is commonly used to broadly estimate a student's aptitude. This test has also been used to determine classification in disability categories such as specific learning disabilities and eligibility for special education services.
  279. Williams syndrome
    A genetic disorder characterized by mild intellectual disabilities, distinctive facial appearance, problems with calcium balance, and blood vessel disease.
  280. Word recognition
    Word recognition enables the readers to recognize words and to learn ways to figure out, or unlock, unknown words by decoding printed words, matching letters, and words with sounds.
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FCC1 Glossary
Glossary words
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