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  1. How do a bill become a law?
    • STEP 1: HoR introduce bill by Member of House & Senate introduce bill by Senator.
    • STEP 2: HoR: House leadership assigns bill to committee for study, hearings & vote mark-ups & Senate: Senate leadership assigns bill to committee for study, hearings & vote mark-ups.
    • STEP 3: Both HoR & Senate assigned to subcommittee for study, hearings, revisions, mark-ups, & vote.
    • STEP 4: HoR: House rules committee
    • STEP 5: HoR: House floor entire house votes & Senate: Senate floor entrie senate votes.
    • STEP 6: Both the HoR & Senate: Conference committee. (If bills is passed in diff. versions then the diffs. must be recounciled. made up of members of both parties)
    • STEP 7: HoR & Senate: Conference committee bill is returned to House & Senate to vote.
    • STEP 8: HoR & Senate: If the Conference Bill passes both the House & the Senate, it is sent to the president to sign or veto.
  2. Differences between the House & Senate:
    • House                           Senate
    • Larger (435members)     Smaller (100 members)
    • Shorter Term (2 years)   Longer Term (6 years)
    • Less flexible rules           More flexible rules
    • Narrower constituency    Broader, more varied
    • Policy specialists            Policy generalists
    • Power less evenly dist.    Power more evenly
    • Less prestige                 More prestige
    • More expeditious in         Less expeditious in         floor debate                  floor debate
    • Less reliance on staff      More reliance
    • Less press & media          More press & media
    • coverage                        coverage                                              BUT floor proceedings televised

  3. Structure of Federal Court System:
    • Supreme Court:on original & appellate jurisdiction.
    •          ^
    • Appeal Court:Appeal ruling by district court.
    •          ^
    • District Court:Trial court original jurisdiction.

    The 14th amendment is a traditional bridge from the State supreme court to the Federal supreme court so cases can be heard.
  4. What cases gets heard by the Supreme Court & why?
    • Must have a legal reason for being in court.
    • Must be nonpolitical.
  5. What 4 characteristics of part association emerged in 18th century England?
    • Loyal opposition
    • Like- minded people getting together
    • formation of cohesive voting blocks
    • coherent election campaigning
  6. Describe the process and importance of the following with regard to a presidential campaign:
    • A) Primary: Elections. Closed primaries allow only party members to vote for their party & a closed primary is being able to vote for all parties. Caucus: party organizations. (Chose delegates that would participate in a nat'l party convention)
    • B) National party convention: chose the president, VP, & decides on party platform.
    • C&D) Final compromise formula. Each state gets a # of delegates, then votes for pres = to the # of reps that state has in the house + the 2 for Senate.
  7. Define open primary, closed primary, soft money & PAC:
    • Open Primary: Voter can vote for all parties.
    • Closed Primary: Voter can only vote for their party.
    • Political Action Committee: organization that pools campaign contributions from members and donates those funds to campaigns
    • Soft money: contribution to PP thats not for the candidate
  8. What is:
    Rise of media
    Election reform
    Rise of candidate
    • Rise of media:sets political agenda, dont provide facts, focus on opinions.
    • Rise of candidate:wasnt about the issue s/he plans to change or problems they plan to solve, it was about the image of the candidate.
    • Election reform: took functions away from the parties & provided them with other institutions. Direct primaries: let party select own candidate through electoral process. & Political patronage: gave political parties enormous power.
  9. Define political party, political machine, patronage, linkage institution, primary, single member district, FEC:
    • political party: institution that connects ppl to gov.
    • political machine: Organizations in large cities effective in the vote for their candidate.
    • patronage:support system
    • linkage institution:structure in a society that connects ppl to gov or authority.
    • primary: first importance, principal
    • single-member district:electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.
    • Federal Election Commision: independent agency to financial rule governing campaigns
  10. Describe the advantages of being an incumbent Congress as it applies to re-election?
    • Financial advantage
    • Greater advantage in special interest PAC fundraising.
    • Raising 8 times the amount given to challengers.
  11. Describe Marbury v. Madison:
    • John Marbury had received an appointment but his commision never got delivered. Marbury believed Madison was in violation of Judiciary Act of 1789. This case established judicial review.
    • Judicial review:implied powers to take a piece from law.
  12. Describe organizational chart of American political party: Give description of each aspect & include the various institutions.
    • National Level:Nat'l Convention & Committee
    • State Level: State conventions & Committees
    • Local Level: County: Local Units (districts, precinct captains): Electoral.
    • ^^^^^^^POWER FLOWS UPWARD ^^^^^^^
    • Nat'l Level: responsible for fund raising, enhancing the parties image & heading off intra party disputes.
    • State Level: usually carries out the directives of the state convention.
  13. Describe selection process for the justices:Include the role of president & Congress. Who serves on Court & why?
    Method of Selection: By president with advice & consent from senate. Senate sets up judicial appts.
  14. Define appellate jurisdiction, common law, judicial review, original jurisdiction, & stare decisis:
    • Appellate jurisdiction: case heard originally in another court first then remanded on appeal.
    • Common Law: Judge-made law originating in England from decisions based on prevailing customs.
    • Judicial review: The power to rule unconstitutional & unenforceable any law or any official action
    • Original jurisdiction: where case is first heard (Trial Court)
  15. Define standing committee, pork barrel, gerrymandering:
    • standing committee: permanent committees in LEG.
    • Pork barrel:secure gov funds & projects for their constituents.
    • Gerrymandering:favoring one group or political party over another.
  16. Explain how the following relates to campaign financing:
    Federal Election Campaign 1971
    Bipartisan Campaign Reform 2002
    Citizen United v. FEC
    • FECA 1971: Tried to limit the amount individuals can spend of their own money to run for office.
    • BCR 2002: banned unrestricted soft money to PP, restricts end of the campaign advertising, raises limits on direct cash contributes.
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