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How do a bill become a law?
- STEP 1: HoR introduce bill by Member of House & Senate introduce bill by Senator.
- STEP 2: HoR: House leadership assigns bill to committee for study, hearings & vote mark-ups & Senate: Senate leadership assigns bill to committee for study, hearings & vote mark-ups.
- STEP 3: Both HoR & Senate assigned to subcommittee for study, hearings, revisions, mark-ups, & vote.
- STEP 4: HoR: House rules committee
- STEP 5: HoR: House floor entire house votes & Senate: Senate floor entrie senate votes.
- STEP 6: Both the HoR & Senate: Conference committee. (If bills is passed in diff. versions then the diffs. must be recounciled. made up of members of both parties)
- STEP 7: HoR & Senate: Conference committee bill is returned to House & Senate to vote.
- STEP 8: HoR & Senate: If the Conference Bill passes both the House & the Senate, it is sent to the president to sign or veto.
Differences between the House & Senate:
- House Senate
- Larger (435members) Smaller (100 members)Shorter Term (2 years) Longer Term (6 years)Less flexible rules More flexible rulesNarrower constituency Broader, more variedPolicy specialists Policy generalistsPower less evenly dist. Power more evenlyLess prestige More prestigeMore expeditious in Less expeditious in floor debate floor debateLess reliance on staff More relianceLess press & media More press & mediacoverage coverage BUT floor proceedings televised
Structure of Federal Court System:
- Supreme Court:on original & appellate jurisdiction.
- Appeal Court:Appeal ruling by district court.
- District Court:Trial court original jurisdiction.
amendment is a traditional bridge from the State supreme court to the Federal supreme court so cases can be heard.
What cases gets heard by the Supreme Court & why?
- Must have a legal reason for being in court.
- Must be nonpolitical.
What 4 characteristics of part association emerged in 18th century England?
- Loyal opposition
- Like- minded people getting together
- formation of cohesive voting blocks
- coherent election campaigning
Describe the process and importance of the following with regard to a presidential campaign:
- A) Primary: Elections. Closed primaries allow only party members to vote for their party & a closed primary is being able to vote for all parties. Caucus: party organizations. (Chose delegates that would participate in a nat'l party convention)
- B) National party convention: chose the president, VP, & decides on party platform.
- C&D) Final compromise formula. Each state gets a # of delegates, then votes for pres = to the # of reps that state has in the house + the 2 for Senate.
Define open primary, closed primary, soft money & PAC:
- Open Primary: Voter can vote for all parties.
- Closed Primary: Voter can only vote for their party.
- Political Action Committee: organization that pools campaign contributions from members and donates those funds to campaigns
- Soft money: contribution to PP thats not for the candidate
Rise of media
Rise of candidate
- Rise of media:sets political agenda, dont provide facts, focus on opinions.
- Rise of candidate:wasnt about the issue s/he plans to change or problems they plan to solve, it was about the image of the candidate.
- Election reform: took functions away from the parties & provided them with other institutions. Direct primaries: let party select own candidate through electoral process. & Political patronage: gave political parties enormous power.
Define political party, political machine, patronage, linkage institution, primary, single member district, FEC:
- political party: institution that connects ppl to gov.
- political machine: Organizations in large cities effective in the vote for their candidate.
- patronage:support system
- linkage institution:structure in a society that connects ppl to gov or authority.
- primary: first importance, principal
- single-member district:electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.
- Federal Election Commision: independent agency to financial rule governing campaigns
Describe the advantages of being an incumbent Congress as it applies to re-election?
- Financial advantage
- Greater advantage in special interest PAC fundraising.
- Raising 8 times the amount given to challengers.
Describe Marbury v. Madison:
- John Marbury had received an appointment but his commision never got delivered. Marbury believed Madison was in violation of Judiciary Act of 1789. This case established judicial review.
- Judicial review:implied powers to take a piece from law.
Describe organizational chart of American political party: Give description of each aspect & include the various institutions.
- National Level:Nat'l Convention & Committee
- State Level: State conventions & Committees
- Local Level: County: Local Units (districts, precinct captains): Electoral.
- ^^^^^^^POWER FLOWS UPWARD ^^^^^^^
- Nat'l Level: responsible for fund raising, enhancing the parties image & heading off intra party disputes.
- State Level: usually carries out the directives of the state convention.
Describe selection process for the justices:Include the role of president & Congress. Who serves on Court & why?
Method of Selection: By president with advice & consent from senate. Senate sets up judicial appts.
Define appellate jurisdiction, common law, judicial review, original jurisdiction, & stare decisis:
- Appellate jurisdiction: case heard originally in another court first then remanded on appeal.
- Common Law: Judge-made law originating in England from decisions based on prevailing customs.
- Judicial review: The power to rule unconstitutional & unenforceable any law or any official action
- Original jurisdiction: where case is first heard (Trial Court)
Define standing committee, pork barrel, gerrymandering:
- standing committee: permanent committees in LEG.
- Pork barrel:secure gov funds & projects for their constituents.
- Gerrymandering:favoring one group or political party over another.
Explain how the following relates to campaign financing:
Federal Election Campaign 1971
Bipartisan Campaign Reform 2002
Citizen United v. FEC
- FECA 1971: Tried to limit the amount individuals can spend of their own money to run for office.
- BCR 2002: banned unrestricted soft money to PP, restricts end of the campaign advertising, raises limits on direct cash contributes.