Geography 5 Final Study Guide

  1. Geography

    Literal meaning of the word "geography"
    The study of spatial variation

    -How and why
    things differ from place to place on the surface of the Earth

    -"Earth Writing"
  2. Physical (natural) geography
    -Focus on natural environment

    and their distribution, climate patterns, and soils and vegetation
  3. Human Geography
    -Emphasizes people and how they interact with each other
  4. Areal Differentiation
    -The geographic description and explanation of spatial differences on Earth's surface

    -This includes physical as well as human patterns

    No two places on the earth are exactly the same
  5. Early History of Geography
    • -Nearly every ancient society had some form of geography
    • -Modern geography began in the 17th century
  6. Approaches to Geography:


    -Branch of geography that deals with the figure and motions of the earth, its measurement, and map projections

    The art and science of graphically representing a geographical area, usually on a flat surface such as a map or chart
  7. Regional Geography

    Systematic Geography
    -Focuses on a comprehensive understanding of physical and human characteristics of a particular region

    -Focus attention on one or a few aspects of the physical environment of human populations and societies
  8. Object

    -Discrete entities that have sharp boundaries and are separated by space

    -Continuously varying surfaces of the Earth

    -Ex: Average precipitation, landform elevations
  9. Dimensionality
  10. Geographic processes
    -The geographical process are both physical and human and tell what is going on (the causes or circumstances around)  the area of concern

    Ex: Erosion, water, etc.
  11. Absolute Location

    Relative Location
    -Identification of place by some precise and accepted system of coordinates (latitude/longitude)

    -Where something is located in relation to another place

    -Ex: Santa Barbara is x miles from LA
  12. Distance

    -The cost of overcoming the separation between places (fuel, calories, etc)

    -Where things are in relation to other things
  13. Three types of scale:



    -The actual size of a feature in geography

    -The size at which we study and analyze things

    -Size of the map relative to the part of the Earth
  14. Generalization
    -The amount of averaging over detail
  15. Site

    -Physical and cultural characteristics and attributes of a place itself

    Refers to the external relations of a place, expresses relative location

    -Ex: Tourists travel to Santa Barbara from LA because of the proximity of the two places
  16. Density
    -The amount of a feature per unit area
  17. Dispersion

    -The amount of spread of a phenomenon over area or around a central location

    The clustering of a phenomenon around a central location
  18. Patterns



    -Geometric arrangements of features in space

    -Not always straight, but generally straight

    -No pattern

    -All in one place, not random
  19. Spatial Association (Covariation)
    -When the distribution of two features spatially correspond with each other

    -Ex: Areas where consuming alcohol is legal tend to have Catholic residents, where so-called dry counties have mostly Protestant residents
  20. Regions
    -Areas broadly divided by physical characteristics, and human impact characteristics (the interaction of humans and their environment)
  21. Administrative Regions
    • -Sharply defined boundaries (countries, states, football fields)
    • -Uniform membership function with equal representation
    • -Official
  22. Thematic Region
    -Based on one or more objectively measurable properties (language, soil properties, etc)

    -Vague boundaries

  23. Functional Regions
    -Emerge from patterns of interaction over space and time that connect places

    -Ex: Region at which most people shop at a particular shopping center or a region in which most people listen to a particular radio station

    -Vague boundaries, non-uniform membership function
  24. Perceptual Regions
    -Regions defined by peoples' beliefs (stereotypical area, downtown, etc)

    -Vague boundaries, non-uniform membership function
  25. Region Boundary Sharpness

    Region Boundary Vagueness
    -Precise measurement

    -Not precise, implied
  26. Image Upload 1Isochrones
    -Each line represents equal time to get to a certain starting point
  27. Earth's size and shape
    Bumpy, oblate spheroid because Earth is 27 miles wider at equator than it is from pole to pole

    -A body that is shaped like a sphere but is not perfectly round

    Would be about as round and as smooth as a pool ball

    -71% water, 29% land
  28. Latitude-longitude grid (graticule)
    -A grid of lines running horizontally and vertically

    -Precise and standardized way of identifying locations on the Earth

    -Globe: Earth's graticule
  29. Meridians


    Prime Meridian
    -Vertical lines (longitude)

    -Horizontal lines (latitude)

    -0 degrees, passes through Greenwich Observatory outside of London
  30. Geographic Information
  31. Remote Sensing
    -Obtains images of an area or object without having the sensor in direct physical contact

    -Aerial photography or satellite sensors
  32. Aerial Photographs
    -Aerial photography from planned positions and routes permits reliable data gathering for large and small area mapping purposes
  33. Electromagnetic Spectrum
    -Standard photographic film detects reflected energy within the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum
  34. Multispectral Scanning
    -A scanning system used to collect data over a variety of different wavelength ranges

    -Most common scanning system
  35. Resolution
    • -The detail an image holds
    • -Applies to raster digital images
    • -Large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions
  36. Maps

    -Pictorial models of a portion of the Earth's surface

    -The art and science of maps and map-making
  37. Reference Maps
    -General purpose maps

    Show accurate locations of features (natural or human-made) without analysis or interpretation

    Highway maps, city-street maps, topographic maps
  38. Thematic Maps
    -Present a specific spatial distribution or a single category of data

    -Population, rainfall, median income, etc
  39. Choropleth

    -A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit data

    -Transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
  40. Image Upload 2Isoline (countour) maps
    -Features lines that connect points registering equal values of the item mapped

    -Contour line- Shows identical elevations above sea level 
  41. Proportional Area Symbols
    -In this technique, the cartographer selects a symbol and alters its size based on data values

    -Ex: A symbol for a point with a data value of 100 should be twice the area of the symbol for a point with the value of 50
  42. Interpreting Isoline maps
    Lines represent equal values

    Ex: Isotherms shown on daily weather maps connect points registering equal values of the item mapped
  43. Developing the Earth's surface and map projections
    -Mapmakers do not physically engage in cutting, peeling, or stretching

    -Instead, they project the globe grid onto a flat surface
  44. Developable Surfaces
    -Surfaces of cylinders, cones, and planes

    Can be cut and laid flat without distortion
  45. Image Upload 3Cylindrical Projection
    -Developed geometrically or mathematically from a cylinder wrapped around a globe
  46. Image Upload 4Conic Projection
    -Cone is placed tangent to the globe along a single standard parallel

    -Often deployed to depict one hemisphere or smaller parts of the earth
  47. Image Upload 5Planar (Azimuthal) Projections
    -Constructed by placing a plane tangent to the globe at a single point
  48. Projection Aspect and Location of Light Source
  49. Geometric Projections
    -Graticule is transferred from the globe to a geometrical figure, which can then be spread out flat (developed)
  50. Image Upload 6Mathematical Projection
    -Map designs that are derived mathematically from equations involving angles and trigonometry
  51. Distortions due to projection
    -There are four basic characteristics of a map that are distorted to some degree, depending on the projection used

    -These characteristics include distance, direction, shape, and area
  52. Image Upload 7Equivalent Projections
    -A projection that maintains accurate relative sizes is called an equal area, or equivalent projection
  53. Image Upload 8Conformal Projections
    -Map projection that retains correct shape of small areas

    -Lines of latitude and longitude cross at right angles and scale is the same in all directions
  54. Choice of Projection
  55. Image Upload 9Mercator Projection
    -Cylindrical projection

    -Straight lines drawn in constant compass direction, used for navigation
  56. Power of Maps

    Deception of Maps
  57. Image Upload 10Topological Subway (Network) Maps
    -A type of diagram that has been simplified so that only vital information remains and unnecessary detail has been removed
  58. Image Upload 11T-O Maps
    • -Medieval
    • -Asia at top in single part, Europe and Africa at the bottom
  59. Geographic Information System (GIS)
    -Software package for handling, processing, and analyzing geographic data

    -Also a computer database in which every item of data is tied to a precise geographic location
  60. Vector

    The precise location of each object--point, line, or area--in a distribution is described (points on a river), more suitable for human or cultural data

    • -Study area is divided into a set of small (usually square) cells
    • -For natural geographic data, like elevations and rainfall
  61. Buffer

    • -A zone of specified distance around coverage features
    • -To lay or place (one thing) over or upon another, esp. in maps
  62. Domains of spatial behavior and interaction in human geography
    Between cities, countries, etc.
  63. Accessibility
    The relative ease at which a location may be reached from another location
  64. Distance Decay

    Friction of Distance
    -Describes the decline of an activity or function with increasing distance from its point of origin

    -The greater the distance, the greater the "friction" and the less the interaction
  65. 1st Law of Geography

    -Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things
  66. Typical Shape of Decay Function
    Image Upload 12
  67. Critical Distance
    -The distance beyond which cost, effort, and means strongly influence our willingness to travel

    -Ex: short distance trips are taken more than long distance trips
  68. Complementarity

    • -The relationship of two places or regions that each produce different goods or services
    • -Results in an exchange between places

    -The cost of moving a commodity relative to the ability of the commodity to bear the cost
  69. Intervening Opportunity
    -The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
  70. Movement bias
    -People's favoring of distance and direction

    -Control or regulation of movement of people commodities, communication
  71. Networks


    -The areal pattern of sets of places (nodes) and the routes (links) connecting them, along which movement can take place

    Origin, destination, or intersection place

    -Connection or route within a network
  72. Node Hierarchies
    -Ex:  Continent – Country – State – Region – City or time hierarchies (see the example below).
  73. Perception

    -The way in which an individual perceives the environment

    -Knowledge and beliefs about something, and the thinking and memory processes that modify them
  74. Affect


    -Motion, mood, feelings, attitude

    A belief with a response

    and goal-directed action
  75. Disaggregate Approach to Human Geography
    -Individual people studied in geography by turning to mental states or mind
  76. Two motivations for behavioral/cognitive geography
    -To study individual people (disaggregate approach)

    -To understand why people act the way they do from a geographical point of view
  77. Temporary Travel

    • -Travel with no intent to change residence
    • (shopping, vacation)

    -The permanent relocation of an individual to a new place or residence
  78. Activity Space

    Home range

    Criminal Range
    -The area within which people move freely on their typical rounds of regular activity

    -Area in which a person lives and travels

    Area over which a criminal targets for his crimes
  79. Time Geography
    -The study of temporal and spatial properties of human travel

    -Particularly temporal travel

  80. Image Upload 13Space-Time Paths

    Space-Time Prisms
    • -A diagram of the line through space and time which describes where we are at any given time, how long we spend there, and how fast we move between locations
    • -Usually describes a single day

    -A diagram of space and the length of time within which our activities are confined by constraints of our bodily needs (eating, resting) and our daily responsibilities
  81. Space-time Budgets
    -How an individual budgets their time in the space-time prism
  82. Total Displacement

    Partial Displacement
    • -Move far enough so their new activity spaces do not interact with their former home ranges
    • -Ex: Moving to a new city in California

    • -Move to new residence nearby, with a new activity space that overlaps some of their previous home ranges
    • -Ex: Moving across town
  83. Channelized Migration

    Chain Migration
    • -Migration that flows between areas that are socially and economically allied by past migration patterns or some other affinity
    • -Ex: Retirees moving to Florida or Arizona

    • -Migration from one area to the other is sustained by links of friendship or kinship between first movers and later followers
    • -Ex: African Americans from Mississippi migrated to Chicago
  84. Counter-Migration
    -The return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated
  85. African American Migration in the 20th century
    -Great Migration

    -Until 1960s,
    6 million African Americans moved from South to West, North
  86. Motivations to Migrate
    • -Poverty
    • -Rapid population growth
    • -Environmental deterioration
    • -War
  87. Forced Migration

    Voluntary Migration
    • -Relocation decision is made solely by people other than migrants themselves
    • -Ex: Trail of Tears

    • -When people relocate their residence by free choice
    • -Ex: Moving houses as a result of a job change
  88. Push Factors

    Pull Factors
    • -An unfavorable characteristic that pushes residents away
    • -Ex: Pollution

    • -Acts as an attractive force and draws migration from other regions
    • -Ex: Low crime rate
  89. Anticipated Place Utility
    -The process of increasing the attractiveness of a product to a group of consumers by altering its physical location
  90. Refugees
    People who flee their homelands because of war, persecution, political problems, etc
  91. Spatial Search and Choice Models
    • -Basically shows houses seen by buyers and houses in price range of buyers
    • -Dots: Represent house vacancies in the price of buyers, vacancies seen by buyers

    -Black squares- workplaces of buyers
  92. U.S. Center of Population
    -the point at which an imaginary, flat, weightless, and rigid map of the United States would balance perfectly if weights of identical value were placed on it so that each weight represented the location of one person on the date of the census

    -2010: Texas County, Missouri
  93. Cognitive (mental) maps

    Distortions in Cognitive Maps
    -Set of mental representations people hold in their mind

    Express beliefs/knowledge about the layout of the environment at different scales

    -Influenced by personal feelings, and may be distorted and incomplete when compared to the actual layouts
  94. Sketch Maps
    - a rough map of the principal features of a locale, as one drawn from memory. a map drawn from observation (rather than from exact measurements).
  95. Navigation


    You-Are-Here Map Orientation
    -Coordinated, goal-directed travel through the environment

    -Knowing where to go and where you are

    Shows where you are in relation to other places at the present time
  96. Environmental Attitudes

    Place Perception

    Place Stereotypes
    -determine behavior that either increases or decreases environmental quality.

    -the feeling a person connects with a place they haven't been to, based on what they've heard or read about the place

    Believing what you hear or read about a place rather than reality

  97. Self-Identification and Self-Definition Via Place
    -People tend to identify and define themselves strongly with the places that they are from

    -(East Coast, Orange County, etc)

    -Can lead to some stereotyping
  98. Place Attachment
    -Place attachment is an affective bond that people establish with specific areas where they prefer to remain and where they feel comfortable

    a hometown
  99. Image Upload 14Preference Maps
    -is generally a technique of analyzing the market of a product in comparison to other competitors' products
  100. Globalization
    -A reference to the increasing interconnection between all parts of the world
  101. Computational Modeling in Geography
    GIS, raster, vector
  102. Principle Of Parsimony
    -the simplest explanation that works is the best

  103. Explanatory Model

    Normative Model
    -explanation of why and how a thing works or an explanation of why a phenomenon is the way it is

    -which evaluates alternative solutions to answer the question
  104. Social Gravity
    -The force that draws a person to their original social position, often binding a person and making them feel they cannot fight against it.

    -Ex: If a person born lower class
  105. Simple Gravity Model
    I=k(constant) PiPj/Dbij

    • Amount of interaction= constant (k) place1(x)place2/square of distance between them
  106. Reilly's Breaking Point Model
    -larger cities have larger spheres of influence than smaller ones.
  107. Huff (potential) Model
    -An analysis used to determine the probability a customer has of shopping at a particular retailer. Based on size of store and location.
  108. Personal Communication Field
    -An area defined by the distribution of an individual's short-range informal communications. The size and shape of the field are defined by work, recreation, school
  109. Individual Communication

    Mass Communication
    -When a person talks to a person or a few persons directly rather than a large group or an audience

    -Study of how individuals and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.
  110. Trail of Tears
    • -Forced Migration of Indians from Georgia to Oklahoma
    • -Many died
  111. Ideological Culture

    Technological Culture

    Sociological Culture
    -Beliefs and knowledge: creation stories, language, ethical systems (mentifacts)

    -Material objects and techniques for use: tools, farming and cooking practices, weapons, architecture (artifacts)

    -Social patterns and rituals: kinship and mating systems, politics, social hierarchy (sociofacts)
  112. Artifact


    -Material manifestation of culture (item)

    Expresses values and beliefs (language, religion, folktales)

    Rule, custom, or institution (politics, mating systems, family structure)
  113. Culture Trait

    Culture Region
    • -A single distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture
    • -Ex: Using chopsticks

    -A region in which common cultural characteristics prevail (language)
  114. Cultural Landscape
    -The natural landscape as modified by human activities and bearing the imprint of a culture group or society

    -The built environment
  115. Innovation

    -Introduction of new culture traits, whether ideas, practices, or material objects

    -The spread and movement of a phenomenon over space and through time
  116. Cultural Ecology
    -The study of the relationship, between a culture group and the natural environment in occupies
  117. External Contact

    In-Situ Cultural Changes
    -Contact between peoples with different cultures, usually leading to change in both systems

    Cultural changes that were not influenced by external contact and occurred within the culture
  118. Culture Hearth
    -An area from which a distinct set of culture traits, technologies, and ideas develops
  119. Cultural Convergence

    Cultural syncretism
    -Cultures become more alike as they share technology and organizational structures

    The blending of elements of cultures
  120. Ethnicity
    -Racial, cultural, religious characteristics distinguish group
  121. Number of Languages

    Major World  (Top 5)
    -6,900 spoken today

    -Mandarin, Spanish, English, Hindi, Arabic
  122. Primary Language

    Secondary Language
    -Native language, 1st language

    • -Language that is not 1st language, learned
    • -Ex: American learning Spanish
  123. Monolingualism

    -Condition of being able to speak only a single language

    Ability to speak multiple languages (most of the world)
  124. Language Family
    • -A collection of languages related to each other through a common language long before recorded history.
    • -Ex: Romance languages

  125. Origin and Diffusion of Indo-European Language Family
    -Probably farmers in Turkey 9,000 years ago

    -Spread to Europe, Asia
  126. Extinct Language

    Moribund Language
    - A language that no longer has any speakers, or that is no longer in current use

    A language that has reached a reduced state of use (60-80% of world languages)
  127. American Indian Languages

    Native American Languages Act
    -250 Native American languages exist today

    • -1990
    • -the status of the cultures and languages of Native Americans is unique and the United States has the responsibility to act together with Native Americans to ensure their survival
  128. Origin of English Language

    Diffusion of English Language
    -Brought to England by West Germanic invaders

    -America, New Zealand, Australia
  129. Lingua Franca

    -A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages

    Different forms of the same language that have unique words, meanings, and pronunciations
  130. Standard (official) language
    -Language used in education, formal language
  131. Pidgins

    -A simplified form of speech that is usually a mixture of two or more languages and is used for communication between cultures

    - A stable natural language developed from the mixing of parent languages (Jamaican)
  132. Toponymy

    Major World Religions
    The study of place names

    -Christians, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists
  133. Divinity


    -The state of things that come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god

    -Belief in the existence of one god

    Belief in many gods
  134. Animism


    -Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life

    The practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community (Korean Kingdoms/ Central Asia)

    -The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking
  135. Religious "Dialects"
  136. Universalizing Religion

    -a religion that attempts to operate on a global scale and to appeal to all people wherever they reside

    -trying to convert someone to your religion
  137. Ethnic Religion

    Tribal Religion
    -Meant for specific cultures,  Hinduism, Judaism

    small local religion with close, animistic ties to nature, shrinking, ex. Shinto (japanese)
  138. Spatial Diffusion
    -The process or dispersion of an idea or an item from a center of origin to more distant points which it is directly or indirectly connected.
  139. Medical Geography
    - Medical geographers examine the distribution of health-related phenomena over time  -Ways in which these phenomena interact and determine the status of human health in a community.
  140. Adoption of Innovations

    Innovation "Laggards"
    -Adopted as a result of needing new solutions to problems or other reasons

    -Laggards are traditionalists and the last to adopt an innovation
  141. Expansion Diffusion

    Relocation Diffusion
    • -The spread of an idea from one place to another that also remains in the hearth where it started
    • -Ex: Islam

    The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another

  142. Contagious Diffusion

    Hierarchical Diffusion
    • -Spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or place
    • -Ex: Spread of Islam from Mecca

    -Contagious diffusion is the rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
  143. Image Upload 15Hagerstrand Model of Diffusion
    - Theoretical model to explain the process of how innovations become diffused, that is how new ideas spread over a region
  144. Monte Carlo Modeling
    -A numerical process of repeatedly calculating a mathematical problem in which the random variables of the problem are simulated from random number generators.
  145. Isotropic Plane

    Isotropic, plain assumption
    -A plane that is identical in all directions

    An area is completely uniform physically, politically, technologically, and culturally
  146. Mean Information Field (MIF)
    -Field in which contacts can occur

    Square grid of 25 cells, with each cell being assigned a probability of being contacted

    • -The possibility of contact is very high in the central cells from which the diffusion takes place, decreases as you move outward
  147. Modifying Assumptions of Hagerstrand Model
    -Models showed a masculine and falsely-ordered view of the world
  148. Politics

    Political Geography
    -The activities associated with the governance of a country

    • -Study of the organization and distribution of political phenomena
    • -Impact on other spatial components of society and culture
  149. Territory
    -an area of land under the jurisdiction of a ruler or state
  150. Positional Disputes
    Territorial Disputes
    Resource Disputes
    • -Occur when states disagree about documents that define a boundary
    • -Disagreement between states over the control of surface areas
    • -Disagreement over the control or use of shared resources
  151. political status of Antarctica
    • -Neither established government nor permanent population
    • -Therefore, it is not a state
  152. Microstate of Sealand

    • -Unrecognized micronation
    • -Claims that it is an independent country but that is doubtful

    -entities that claim to be independent nations or states but which are not recognized by world governments or major international organizations
  153. Geopolitics
    -Study of how spatial relations among regions influence their current and past political activities and relations
  154. Electoral Geography
    -The study of geographic elements of organization and the result of elections
  155. Voting demographics
    • -statistical data relating to the population and particular groups within it.
    • -Patterns of voting
  156. Redistricting
    -The drawing of new electoral district boundary lines in response to changing patterns of population or changing legal requirements
  157. Gerrymandering
    -Redrawing district boundaries so that particular candidates have an advantage in that area
  158. Majority-Minority District
    -one in which a racial or ethnic minority makes up a large-enough share of the electorate to assure that the community has a reasonable chance to elect the candidate of their choice.
  159. Compactness of electoral districts
    -Compactness is good, but also need to "represent smaller-group minorities" so, conflicts w/ compactness sometimes.
  160. State as administrative region
    -same as a country. internationally recognized, under own sovereign control. about 200 in world right now. a bounded territory.
  161. Nation as a grouping of people
    -A community of people with a common culture and territory, bound together by a set of shared beliefs and customers
  162. Nation Homeland as thematic region

    Nation homeland as cognitive region
  163. Sovereignty
    - is the quality of having independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory
  164. Nation-state
    -A state whose territory is identical to that occupied by a particular ethnic group or nation

    -Has uniform religion, language, or some other characteristic that binds the nation together

    -Ex: Poland or Slovenia

  165. Centripetal force

    Centrifugal force
    -Forces that tend to bind together a state, promoting unity

    -Forces of disruption and dissolution threatening the unity of a state
  166. Autonomous Nationalism
    -A movement by a dissident minority intent on achieving partial or total independence from the territory in which it occupies from the state with which it lies

    Movement of the French in Canada
  167. Terrorism
    -Open and covert action employing the inducement of fear and terror as a means of political coercion
  168. Multi-state (supranational) organizations
    -A type of multi-national organization where negotiated power is delegated to an authority by governments of member states

    Used to describe the European Union
  169. United Nations

    European Union
    • -51 countries
    • -Bring together the world's nations in international assembly and to promote world peace

    An economic and political union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe
  170. NAFTA

    • -Links Canada, Mexico, and US in an economic community
    • -Aimed at removing trade and movement restrictions among the countries

    (CAFTA) eliminates barriers to trade and investment among the seven signatories: Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and the United States.
  171. NATO
    -An alliance of countries from North America and Europe committed to fulfilling the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty signed on 4 April 1949.
  172. Internal Administrative Regions
    -Administrative regions smaller than those of entire countries

    In provinces, states, counties, etc. school, sewage, electrical districts. mostly tracked through GIS. includes cadastral regions.
  173. Cadastral Region
    -Private property and real estate parcel boundary lines.

    -Legal geography deals w/ border disputes
  174. Largest and smallest states
    Largest: Russia

    Smallest: Nauru
  175. Characteristic state shapes

    • -Elongated (Norway)
    • -Compact (Zimbabwe)
    • -Prorupt (Thailand)
    • -Fragmented (Philippines)
    • -Perforated (South Africa)
  176. Enclaves

    • -A small bit of foreign territory lying within a state but not under its jurisdiction
    • -Ex: Lesotho 

    • -A portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country
    • -Ex: A strip of land that connects to a territory but extends into the other territory in the ocean
  177. Landlocked states
    -A landlocked country is a country entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas. There are 48 landlocked countries

    -Ex: Arizona, Alaska
  178. Core

    • -The nucleus of a state
    • -Contains its most developed area, greatest wealth, densest populations, and clearest national identity

    the area of a country, province, region, or state, regarded as enjoying primary status, usually but not always the seat of the government
  179. Administrative boundaries (borders)
    -Lines that establish the limit of each state's jurisdiction and authority
  180. Frontier Zones
    • -Ill-defined and fluctuating areas marking the effective end of a state's authority
    • -Fuzzy boundaries of fxnl regions
    • -In past civilizations
  181. Natural (physical) boundaries

    Geometric (artificial) boundaries
    -Those based on recognizable physical features, such as mountains, rivers, or lakes

    • -Segments of parallels of latitude or meridians of longitude (Africa, Asia, Americas)
    • -Ex: 49th parallel (Western portion of US/Canada border)
  182. Antecedent Boundaries

    Subsequent Boundaries
    -A political boundary that existed before the cultural landscape emerged and stayed in a place while people moved in to occupy the surroundings

    -A boundary line that is established after the area in question has been settled and that reflects the cultural characteristics of the bounded areas
  183. Types of subsequent boundaries:

    Consequent Boundary

    Superimposed Boundary
    • -A boundary line that coincides with some cultural divide, such as religion or language
    • -Ex: Boundary drawn between Northern Ireland and Ireland

    • -A boundary line placed over and ignoring an existing cultural pattern
    • -Ex: African countries (why there is so much genocide)
  184. Maritime Boundaries
    • -A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic and/or geopolitical criteria
    • -usually includes areas of exclusive national rights over mineral and biological resources
    • -Ex: drilling for oil
  185. UNCLOS

    (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea)
    -The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations in their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources
  186. Continental Shelf
    -The gently sloping extension of submerged land bordering most coastlines and reaching seaward for varying distances up to 100 miles or more

    Most marine catch is made here
  187. Territorial Waters

    Contiguous Zone
    • -is a belt of coastal waters extending at most 12 nautical miles from the baseline of a coastal state
    • -Seen as territory of the state

    • -24 miles off the coast
    • -Although a state does not have complete sovereignty in this zone, it can enforce customs, immigration, and sanitation laws, and has the right of hot pursuit out of territorial waters
  188. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)

    High Seas (International Waters)
    • -A zone of exploitation extending 200 nautical miles seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it
    • -Oceans, seas, and waters outside of national jurisdiction
    • -Ships sailing the high seas are generally under the jurisdiction of the flag state
    • -Any nation can exercise jurisdiction for piracy
  189. Natural Environment

    Anthropogenic Environment
    • -The physical environment unaffected by human activities
    • -Little or no "natural landscape" remains

    -areas of Earth's terrestrial surface                where direct human alteration of ecological patterns and processes is significant

    - Because of human food for populations for food, shelter and other resources and services including recreation and aesthetic needs.
  190. Nature as "constructed"
    -aren't humans "natural"? can humans "make" nature? is nature good? humans vs. nature.
  191. Environmental Geography

    Human-environment relations
    -the branch of geography that describes and explains the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and their social and natural environment

    These interactions and changes create unplanned cultural landscapes and unwanted environmental conditions
  192. Environmental Determinism

    Cultural Determinism

    Cultural Automony
    -The view that the physical environment, particularly climate controls human action, molds human behavior, and conditions cultural development

    Cultural determinism is the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels.

    -The view that cultures can develop any particular set of cultural traits independent of their environmental circumstance
  193. Culture-environment interactionism
    -The more technologically advanced the culture, the more apparent is its impact on the natural landscape
  194. Environmental Hazards
    -'Environmental hazard' is the state of events which has the potential to threaten the surrounding natural environment and adversely affect people's health.
  195. Extreme Events

    Hazard Events
    -extreme: events of unusual magnitude. MAY OR MAY NOT be hazardous to people. hazard: an extreme event that IS hazardous to humans.
  196. Physical Magnitude

    Hazard Magnitude
    -a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement

  197. Classifying Hazards as natural or anthropogenic
    Natural- events in the environment that can harm humans

    Anthropogenic- Human adaptions and location decisions (building homes in certain places) play a role in the destructiveness of hazards
  198. Types of Natural Hazards

    Types of Anthropogenic Hazards
    -Flood, fire, earthquake, tornado hurricane

    -Crime, civil disorder, terrorism, war, structure collapse, etc
  199. Cause of hazards in nature, society, and technology
  200. Classifying hazards by space-time parameters
    frequency, duration, area/extent, speed of onset, spatial exertion, temporal space
  201. Pervasive-intensive continuum for hazards

    Pervasive Events

    Intensive Events
    -Used to composite the physical characteristics of hazard events

    -spreading widely throughout an area or a group of people

    -Concentrated on a single area
  202. historical trends in hazard outcomes during 20th century
    -more people living in hazardous areas, more economic development. loss of life due to hazards has declined because of better warning systems, evacuation plans, predictive models, storm drains. economic loss due to hazards has increased- rescue attempts, damage, loss of tourism, cost of prevention measures.
  203. hurricanes in the U.S. since 1900
    Galveston Hurricane, San Felipe-Okeechobee Hurricane, Atlantic-Gulf Hurricane
  204. Santa Barbara Earthquake of 1925
    • -Magnitude 6.8
    • -resulted in thirteen casualties and destroyed the historic center of the city, with damage estimated at 8 million dollars.
  205. San Francisco Earthquake of 1906
    • -Fire broke out and raged for 3 days
    • -700 people dead/missing, 25,000 buildings destroyed
    • -"Great Fire of 1906"
  206. Hazard Perception
    -people's beliefs and attitudes about hazards- likelihood they will occur, consequences, preparation, expectation.
  207. Risk Perception

    Risk Assessment
    lay person's perception of risk

    -use of statistical data, computational models, reasons/backgrounds/tools

    -often very big discordance between perception & assessment. ex: perception: riding in plane is more dangerous than car. not true
  208. Intuitive Statistics

    Discrediting risks
    -instinctive, or acting on what one feels to be true even without reason

    -Causes sub-optimal decision-making. -Tendency to discredit serious risks. don't take chance of hazards seriously
  209. Decision-making heuristics
    -Little rules of thumb that people have for decision-making at times of stress/not optimal thinking

    -For rapid decision making
    (tiger jumps out at you from a bush).
  210. availability heuristic
    -If you have a personal experience with a hazard, you have greater perception of risk (house burns down, more aware of fire danger). -Also: media pushed/influenced.
  211. gambler’s fallacy
    • -the belief in the non-independence of events that are actually independent.
    • -belief that events are based on previous events

    (pull slot machine, pays off person before you, you figure it won't pay out anymore. go to different machine). . (lightning never strikes twice).
  212. Residential Inertia
    -The desire to remain in one place, live in same house for long time, not move. caused by many factors
  213. Reciprocal interaction of humans and natural environment
    • -environments influence humans in good & bad ways
    • -Human beings are major cause of species extinction, but also protect them.
  214. Resources and hazards reflect human needs and values
    -Humans affect environment, turn it into resources

    umans<--> natural environment.
  215. Biosphere:

    -On Earth, it comprises the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically

    -is a layer of gases surrounding a material body of sufficient mass that is held in place by the gravity of the body

     Includes all the earth's water found in the oceans, glaciers, streams, lakes, the soil, groundwater
  216. Biomes

    -Biosphere is divided into separate groups of biological communities called biomes

    -Interacting, self-containing communities adapted to local conditions
  217. Ozone in the Upper and Lower Atmosphere
    -Offers protection against sun's rays in upper atmosphere

    -When it is near the surface, it is one of the main components in smog and is damaging to plants and animals
  218. Deforestation

    -The clearing of land through total removal of forest cover

    of desert-like landscapes as a result of overgrazing, destruction of forests
  219. Crop rotation

    Hydrologic Cycle
    -The successive planting of different crops on the same land to improve soil fertility and help control insects and diseases.

    -System in which water is circulated by evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
  220. Aquifers

    Sanitary Landfills
    -A porous, water-bearing layer of rock, sand, or gravel below ground level

    -Sanitary landfills are sites where waste is isolated from the environment until it is safe
  221. Leachate

    Hazardous Wastes

    Toxic Wastes
    -solution formed by leaching, especially a solution containing contaminants picked up through the leaching of soil

    -Discarded solid, liquid, or gaseous material that poses a substantial threat to human health or the environment when improperly stored

    • - Waste material that can cause death, injury or birth defects to living creatures
  222. Invasive Cane Toads
    • -In Australia, they are an invasive species
    • -Secretes poison
    • depletion of native species that die eating cane toads; poisoning, etc
Card Set
Geography 5 Final Study Guide
Geography 5 Final Study Guide