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  1. Where are gametes produced in a fern plant?
    the prothallus
  2. What kind of plant has a dominant gametophyte phase?
  3. What are the male gametophytes called in a pine life cycle?
    Pollen grains
  4. How is a pine sporophyte similar to a moss sporophyte?
    both are diploid
  5. What part of the flower attracts pollinators?
  6. Where in a flower are pollen grains formed?
    In the anthers of the stamen
  7. When does a new sporophyte generation begin?
    When the sperm fertilizes the egg
  8. Why does a seed need an endosperm?
    The growing embryo cannot yet make its own food by photosynthesis.
  9. .When does germination begin?
    When the embryo starts to take up water
  10. What is an advantage of a dormancy state in seeds?
    It is able to germinate under favorable conditions
  11. Why is it a disadvantage for a plant to drop its seeds on the ground rather than dispersing them?
    The new seedlings that grow must compete with the parent plant for light, space, water, and nutrients.
  12. What are the three methods of seed dispersal?
    Water, wind, and ice
  13. .How is a tuber adapted for vegetative reproduction?
    it has buds that can sprout new plants.
  14. Which plant parts can produce new plants by asexual reproduction?
    • Stems
    • Roots
    • Flowers
  15. What is regeneration?
    formation of a new plant from a fragment of a parent plant
  16. What are types of underground stem adapted for vegetative reproduction
    • Rhizomes
    • Tuber
    • Bulb
  17. How might a nursery grow an apple tree that produces three different kinds of apples?
    by grafting the stems of three different apple trees together
  18. How do auxins cause a plant to bend toward light?
    They cause cells on the shaded side of a stem to elongate, bending the stem.
  19. Which kind of hormone causes fruits to ripen?
  20. What type of hormone could you use if you wanted seeds to germinate quickly?
  21. Which plant response causes a stem to grow upward and a root to grow downward?
  22. What plant response causes the leaves to change color in fall?
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