Chapter 6 AP Gov Vocab

  1. Faction
    a term the founders used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups
  2. Pluralism
    a theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group
  3. Interest group
    a collection of people who share a common interest or attitude and seek to influence government for specific ends. Interest groups usually work within the framework of government and try to achieve their goals through lobbying.
  4. Movement
    a large body of people interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action. Movements seek to change attitudes or institutions, not just policies
  5. Open Shop
    a company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment
  6. Closed Shop
    a company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment
  7. Free Rider
    an individual who does not join a group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefit of the group’s influence
  8. Professional Associations
    groups of individuals who share a common profession and are often organized for common political purposes related to that profession
  9. Nongovernmental Organization
    a nonprofit association or group operating outside government that advocates and pursues policy objectives
  10. Collective Action
    how groups form and organize to pursue their goals or objectives, including how to get individuals and group to participate and cooperate. The term has many applications in the various social sciences such as political science, sociology, and economics
  11. Public Choice
    synonymous for collective action, specifically studies how government officials, politicians, and voters respond to positive and negative incentives
  12. Lobbying
    engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact
  13. Federal Register
    an official document, published every weekday, that lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies
  14. Amicus Curiae brief
    a friend of the court brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case
  15. Bundling
    a tactic in which PACs collect contributions from like-minded individuals (each limited to $2,000) and present them to a candidate or political party as a bundle, thus increasing the PAC’s influence
  16. Lobbyist
    a person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches
  17. Revolving Door
    an employment cycle in which individuals who work for government agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern
  18. Issue Networking
    relationships among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees, and the government agencies that share a common policy concern
  19. Political Action Committee (PAC)
    the political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees to contribute funds to candidates or political parties
  20. Leadership Pac
    A PAC formed by an officeholder that collects contributions from individuals and other PACs and then makes contributions to other candidates and political parties
  21. Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act
    Largely banned party soft money, restored long-standing prohibition on corporations and labor unions for using general treasury funds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of issue advocacy
  22. Independent Expenditures
    the Supreme Court has ruled that individuals, groups, and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates. When an individual, group or party does so, they are making an independent expenditure.
  23. Issue Advocacy
    Unlimited and undisclosed spending by an individual or group on communications that do not use words like “vote for” or “vote against” although much of this activity is actually about electing or defeating candidates
  24. 527 Organization/Super PAC
    a political group organized under section 527 of the IRS Code that may accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activities as long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election in which a clearly identified candidate is referred to and a relevant electorate is targeted
Card Set
Chapter 6 AP Gov Vocab
Interest Groups