anim phys 13 gas exchange

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  1. peripheral circulation consist of
    arterial system, capillaries, and venous system
  2. respiratory pigment
    once oxygen diffuses across the respiratory epithelium into the the blood it is bound via
  3. hemoglobin
    give blood red color, ability to bind to oxygen greatly increases the carrying capacity of blood for oxygen. bright red when loaded and dark when deoxygenated
  4. heme
    globin molecule, consist of two dimers: alpha1 beta1 and alpha2 beta2. tightly cohering group
  5. carboxyhemoglobin
    hemoglobin saturated with carbon monoxide
  6. hemoglobin can combine with
    4 oxygen one per heme
  7. hemoglobin-oxygen affinity is reduced by
    • -elevated temp
    • -binding organic phosphate ligands,2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG), ATP, or GTP by hemoglobin
    • -decrease in pH
    • -increase in CO2
  8. Bohrs effect
    reduction in the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin caused by a decrease in pH
  9. total CO2 content
    the sum of all forms of CO2 in the blood
  10. CO2 enters and leaves the blood as
    molecular CO2
  11. in tissues CO2 enters the blood is either:
    hydrated to form HCO3- or reacts with -NH2 groups of hemoglobin and other proteins to form carbamino compounds
  12. chloride shift
    HCO3- ions leave red blood cells.there is a net influx of Cl- ions from the plasma into the cells
  13. in the lungs carbonic anhydrase is
    embedded in the endothelial membranes, so HCO3- can be --> CO2 rapidly
  14. factors influencing intracellular pH
    • -buffering by physical buffers within cells (proteins and phosphates)
    • -reaction of HCO3- with H+ ions, forming CO2, which then diffuses out of cell
    • -passive diffusion or active transport of H+ ions
    • -cation-exchange mechanisms, anion-exchange mechanisms, or both in the plasma membrane
  15. alveoli
    blind ended, interconnected spaces
  16. trachea
    main airway, divides into bronchi and bronchioles
  17. eupnea
    normal breathing
  18. hyperventillation or hypobentilation
    increase or decrease in the amount of air moved into or out of the lungs by changes in breathing such that ventilation no longer matches CO2 production and blood CO2 level change
  19. hyperpnea
    increased lung ventilation due to increased breathing in response to elevated CO2 production ie excerise
  20. Apnea
    absence of breathing
  21. dyspnea
    labored breathing associated with an unpleasant sensation of breathlessness
  22. polypnea
    increase in breathing rate without an increase in the depth of breathing
  23. tidal volume
    amount of air moved into or out of the lungs with each breath
  24. alveolar ventillation volume
    amount of fresh air moving into/out of the alveolar air sacs = tidal volume - the anatomic dead-space volume
  25. vital capacity
    maximum volume of air that can be move in/out of the lungs
  26. small mammals have a __ resting O2 uptake rate per unit bodyweight than large mammals and a __ alveolar surface per body weight
  27. anatomic dead space volume
    volume of air filled in non-respiratory tubes at end of inhalation
  28. pulmonary circulation
    deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary artery perfuses from lung takes O2 and leave CO2
  29. bronchial circulation
    comes from systemic (body) circulation and supplies lung tissues with O2
  30. in birds and mammals blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation is __ than in the systemic circulation
  31. injection of norepinephrine or sympathetic nerve stimulation
    causes a slight increase in resistance to blood flow while acetylcholine opposite
  32. lungs are multi chambered bags, suspended in __ and open to the exterior through __
    pleural cavity, trachea
  33. thoracic cage
    walls of the pleural cavity, formed by the ribs and diaphram
  34. pneumothorax
    if thoracic cage is punctured air is drawn into pleural cavity
  35. respiratory center is in
    medulla oblongata
  36. parabronchi
    in birds gas transfer in small air capillaries 10 um in diameter that branch from __
  37. neonatal respiratory distress syndrome
    infants with no surfactant cant inflate lungs
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anim phys 13 gas exchange
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