


Exponential Notation
Less than one or greater than 10

Scientific Notation
Between 110

MADD
 Multiply (needs) Add (exponents)
 When multiplying numbers with exponents, add the exponents.

Dividing Exponent Numbers
Subtract the exponents

SNEL
 Shortest Number Extreme Left
 Us for Multiplication and Division


Adding and Subtracting Exponent Numbers
 Make them match and bring them down
 Make exponents match by choosing one number to remain the same, manipulate the other accordingly. Final answer will have shared exponent.

SNAD
 Shortest Number After Decimal
 Use with adding and subtracting exponent number
 1) Determine Shortes # (Beads)
 2) Draw the lin after the decimal equal to the # of beads
 3) Round as needed

Rounding with SNEL and SNAD
 If it is Odd ADD (Round UP)
 If it is Even L'Even (Do Nothing)

Multiple Step Problem with Exponents
Including +, , x, /
 Do all steps as usual
 Determine SNEL based on all numbers in final answer choose shortest
 Complete SNEL on final answer
 Do not include any certain numbers (Whole #)

Interpreting Equations
 (a)= (b)/c
 Direct Relationship> across from each other, seperated by =
 Move together
 (A)= B/(C)
 Indirect Relationship
 Move opposite

Logorithim
 Logical Arithmatic
 Exoponent

PEMDAS
Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally
( ), X^{x}, X, /, +, 

Intrinsic
 Does not rely on size of sample
 Color, Ratios, Temperatures

Periodisity
Repeats self in a predictable manner


Group 2A
Alkali Earth Metals


Group 8A
 Rare Inert Noble Gases
 (RIN)

Periodict Table Columns
Groups

Periodic Table Rows
Period

Z
 Atomic Number
 Whole Numbers (Integers)
 Number of protons and electrons

A
 Atomic Mass Number
 Average of all isotopes

Metals
To left of Staircase

Nonmetals
To right of stair case

Metaloid
 On the staircase (but not in front of)
 Sometimes acts like and resembles a metal

Chemical Reactivity
 Based on electorns in outermost shell
 # of electorns in outermost shell is stated by Group Number (1 in 1, 2 in 2, etc.)

Picometer
 How radius is measured
 10^{12}

Otet Rule
 I will bond with someone if I can get 8 Electrons in my outer most shell.
 1A bonds with 7A
 2A bonds with 6A
 8A does not bond as it is complete (NOBLE gases)

2n^{2}
 How to determine the number of electrons on each ring
 Ne Group 8A
 8 rings
 Ring 1: 2(1)^{2}= 2 electrons
 Ring 2: 2(2)^{2}= 8 electrons
 Ring 3: 2(3)^{2}= 18 electrons

Covalent Bonding
 Sharing Electrons
 Weaker bond
 California

Ionic Bonding
 Very strong
 Opposit charges attract like magnets
 Transfering of electrons (stealing electrons)
 Brooklyn Bonding

Ion
 Run in Greek
 Change in balance of electrons and protons

Isotope
Atoms having same atomic # but different mass # because they have a different # of neutrons in the nucleus.

Cations
+ charged
 Electron leaves, becomes positively chargedmes positively charged
 Smaller than an atom

AnIons
 () charged
 Gain an Electron
 Larger than an atom

Pupose of Neutron
Buffer the destructive properties of protons and electrons.

AZ=N
(Atomic Mass Number)  (Atomic Number)= number of Neutrons

Find Atomic Mass #
 1) Multiply mass # by weighted percentage (must all add up to 100)
 2) Add the mass numbers (result of multiplication)
 3) Divide total by 100
 4) Perform SNEL on final number

Mole
Avogadro's Number
6.02x10^{23}

Oxygen bonding
2 bonds and 2 lone pairs

Significant Figures
 Digets recordered in measurement (certain or uncertain)
 0 before decimal point are significant
 0 are NOT significant without decimal point

Precision
How close measurments are in a series to one another

Accuracy
How close a measurement is to actual value

Molecule
Independent structure consisting of 2 or more atoms chemically bound together

Compound
matter composed of 2 or more elements that are chemically bound





Mole of amu
 1 gram
 grams/ mole= amu
 measurement of chemicical protions


Molecular Weight
 amu added up
 example: CO_{2}= 12+(2x16)=44.0g/mole

