Lecture 21

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  1. What are the five orders of reptiles around the world
    • Crocodila: crocodiles and alligators
    • Chenolia : turtles and tortises
    • Squamata :snakes and lizards
    • Rhynocophelia : NZ only
  2. Why are reptiles so successful?
    • they have scales that prevent water loss
    • they have an amniotic sac fluid filled to protect their young
  3. How many families in the different orders of reptiles?
    • Crocodiles: 1 family
    • Turtles: 4 families
    • Lizards: 5 families
    • Snakes: 7 families
  4. Are reptiles monophyletic?
    No, reptiles are not monophyletic in fact they all had different ancestors
  5. Crocodiles : give a a brief summary
    • widespread
    • have heavily armored bodies
    • advanced maternal care - fathers carry babies in mouth
    • all lay eggs
    • 20 mya
    • tropical distribtuin
    • Two types : Fresh water and Salt Water 
    • Fresh water : endemic and restricted( long slender not dangerous  
    • Salt water : PNG and Auz( dangerous eat big animals)
  6. Give a brief description of turtles and tortoises
    • Chelonia are based on the way the head retrats 
    • Cryptoria : 3 families
    • Pleurodira: 1 family
  7. Give a brief description of Australian Lizards
    • 5 families ( some with legs others without)
    • Agamidae : dragons , have strong fast moving legs, all oviparous and eggs in burrows (have head bobbing and other visual displays as courtship) 
    • Geckonidae: geckos, nocturnal, oviparous,some parthenogenesis have tail autonomy
    • Pygopodidae: legless lizards , endemic to aus, tail autonomy,no fore limbs but hind limbs reduced to flops , have a fleshy tongue and ear holes
    • Scincidae: skinks, both oviparous and viviparious , high diversity
    • varanidae: monitors and dragons , closest relative to snakes, oviparous , fast , predators and scavengers
  8. Give a brief description of Australian snakes
    • legless and 7 families
    • Tuphilopidae : (blind snakes) , light sensitive eye spots ,insectivourous , and oviparous 
    • Phythonidae: (pythons) large muscular snakes, mostly nocturnal,oviparous kill prey by afixiation
    • arrochordidae: file snake aquatic, viviparous, tropical lagoons of NT 
    • Coluridae: tree snake , in east coast, arboreal both oviparious and viviparious
    • elapidae : venemous land snakes , front fanged , oviparious and viviparious 
    • Laticaudidae : sea snake oviparous come to shore to lay eggs
    • Hydrophiida : sea snake wholly acquatic viviparious
  9. Oviparous vs viviparous
    • Oviparous : ancestral condition 
    • most eggs laid in burrows
    • some incubate their eggs
    • Viviparous: birth , colder eggs dominant
    • Suggests evolution due to thermalconstraints on embryogenesis
  10. How does sex determination differ in crocodiles and turtles
    fresh water crocodiles and marine turtles : • <30oC all males• 30-32oC mixed males & females• >32oC all females(above is for some Australian turtles
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Lecture 21
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