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  1. Describe the evolutionary history of birds
    • Birds+ dinosaurs shared common ancestors 
    • the oldest known bird fossil was archaepteryx
    • It had the following bird features : feathers and flight features 
    • But it was also reptile like because it had teeth and a very long tail with vertebrate modern birds don't have that
  2. Why did flight evolve?
    • Air was an unexploited environment
    • there were escape from terrestrial predators
    • could travel faster in air
    • allowed for migration
    • abundance of prey due to flying insects
  3. Give the three theories of the evolution of flight and which one is the most preferred?
    • Ground up : birds gradually developed wings from leaping up to grab prey
    • Trees down : evolved from gliding structures which they began to flap in order to produce thrust
    • Sexual selection: wings were used to as a form of display for courtship
    • Ground up is the most preferred
  4. Why are birds not easily fossilized
    They have delicate bones
  5. A large flightless bird
    related to geese
    occurred in Australia 15 mya
    Dromornis stironi
  6. What are common characteristics shared by all birds?
    • Feathers and wings (although not all can fly)
    • Beak (without teeth)
    • They lay hard shelled eggs
    • They have light but tensile bones
  7. Largest bird in OZ
    Smallest bird in OZ
    • Cassowary
    • weeball
  8. Give me the five types of Australian Birds
    • Long established non passerines with gondwanan distribution
    • Corvid passerines
    • Recent paserines colonists from  eurasia
    • Introduced species
    • international birds
  9. Describe Long established Passerines
    • Three groups :  ratites , parrots and penguins
    • Ratites : large flightless birds emu ostriches and cassowaries are examples
    • Parrots : two families cockatoos and parrots 
    • have short strong claws that can manipulate food , no sexual dimorphism are long lived , rely in tree hollows to nest and intelligent
    • they can live in rainforest ,woodlandand arid zones 
    • some have broad distribution (sulfur crested cockatoo)
    • others very restricted 
    • cockatoos are crested
    • are threatened due to habitat loss and fragmentation 
    • Penguins:  generally found in cold habitats 
    • must reproduce on land and hunt in sea
  10. Describe corvid passerines
    • More than 50% of Australian species
    • diverse group descended from crows
    • i.e magpies , fairywrens and blue faced honey eaters
    • the last very important for pollination
  11. Describe recently colonized eurasian passerines
    • these are still considered native but they recently colonized here and now breed in Aus
    • low diversity due to short history in Oz
    • i.e wedge tailed eagl,song thrush . welcome swallow
  12. Introduced species
    • Pests 
    • indroduced by humans
    • house sparrow ,indian mynah
    • they succeed as they are good invaders , wide tolerance  good reproduction , eat anything
  13. World wide groups
    • Come in two - raptors 
    •                   -sea birds
    • Raptors : kites and falcons 
    • sea birds migrate here to escape winter in the north
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