1. "Learning requires that the student _____"
    applies the knowledge or skill or both in some meaningful way"
  2. What creates excellence?
    Having knowledge of the subject area and being able to discriminate what is important from what is not.
  3. Why is it important to be precise in your language?
    To express subtle distinctions
  4. Why is "being able to play the music without stopping" not necessarily a good goal?
    It teaches the student that the bare minimum notes and rhythms are acceptable, when there are more important qualitative goals left out.
  5. How do beginner musicians relate to professionals?
    The aspects of quality can be achieved at any levl - it's just that the professionals' pieces are much more difficult.
  6. Why is "play more lyrically" not a great thing to say to beginners/amateurs?
    The goal is too vague. Be more specific -- a lot of kids do not know how playing lyrically works.
  7. Good teachers have a ________, such that they are always assessing how their class is doing.
  8. ________ should be part of every class.
  9. How do beginners understand the material?
    If they can present the material themselves, they understand it. It takes more than understanding the process.
  10. Assessment drives _____.
  11. Tests tend to test knowledge but not ______.
  12. How can you make a test reliably measure ability to use information?
    Putting the material in an unfamiliar setting. (in our line of work -- sight reading?)
  13. What are the five principles of testing?
    • (just like the guitar competence testing)
    • 1. Grade is affected. 
    • 2. Measures Skills, not content. 
    • 3. Applies to skills Outside of class.
    • 4. Mistakes are Weighted appropriately.
    • 5. Skills are Consistently required from the outset. 
    • GSOWC. Galveston Symphony Orchestra was cool.
  14. One should never sacrifice __________ in order to cover content.
    "skill content" - the skills are what matter and what the student will most remember.
  15. Assessments should happen _______.
  16. _______ are a natural part of learning.
    "Errors" -- allow your students to make plenty in your unofficial assessments before you give them an official assessment.
  17. The teacher's choice of _______ determines whether or not the student will succeed.
    tasks (easy vs. challenging vs. impossible)
  18. What are the six principles of sequencing instruction?
    • 1. Start from scratch each day
    • 2. Structure the tasks in small increments towards the overall goal. 
    • 3. Include only essential information
    • 4. Each task should be an approximaton of the end goal.
    • 5. Inch forward if the student is successful. Leap backwards if they are not. 
    • 6. Multiple correct performances - at least as many correct as there were incorrect. 
    • SSiEEIlM .. (i got nothing)
  19. Expert teachers do what with feedback?
    Half positive/half negative
  20. What is one way to inhibit bad habits and promote more feedback?
    Smaller chunks. (more time between "reps" to give feedback, less time for a bad habit to be reinforced)
  21. _______ is when we apply something that we learned to a new situation.
  22. What is transfer?
    When we apply something that we learned to a new situation.
  23. Transfer is not _____.
  24. True or false:
    All knowledge is useful. Learning one thing will help you learn another.
    False. Not always.
  25. How can students be involved in transfer?
    They can learn to transfer themselves, if the teacher illustrates this to them.
  26. What are the two types of transfer?
    Conscious and unconscious
  27. Describe unconscious transfer.
    Transfer through habits (i.e. posture, fingerings, scales). If you repeatedly practice good posture, then going to a new instrument will likely take that with you.
  28. Describe conscious transfer
    • Transfer through mindful reflection. (i.e. note positions)
    • The student may not need to know this, but the teacher needs to be aware in order to arrange tasks such that the student will experience these things.
  29. You need to be able to ______ goals, so that you can gauge how well the students are learning.
  30. Change happens not because of what the teacher says, it happens because of ______.
    what the student does
  31. Learning sessions should consist of cycles of both _____ and _____.
    teacher instruction (and) student performance
  32. What are the three types of rehearsal modes?
    • (think Easy, Medium, Hard)
    • 1. Minimal verbal instruction is sufficient for success the first time
    • 2. Multiple verbal instructions and performances are required.
    • 3. Student lacks the skill to do it, so the learning target must be simplified.
  33. The difference between novice teachers and experts is not what they do, but _______.
    when they do it. (rehearsal cycles give the teacher the ability to determine the timing of lessons).
  34. When a student performs a given passage unsuccessfully in several trials, then the teacher should then?
    "If the student has difficulty with a task, the teacher should jump back to a task that the teacher knows the student can perform correctly and work forward from there, reinforcing correct performance." (I would also, personally, say that isolating the section they're having difficulty with in a smaller chunk would help as well.. but that's just me. And I'm a terrible teacher.)
  35. In order to improve student motivation, the teacher should:
    "Students come from different background and not all will be willing or able to be motivated ... [however,] the teacher can provide an atmosphere conducive of learning, but cannot cause learning." 

    -- Also -- 

    Realize that students are motivated in different ways, and through different types of feedback. Some are motivated by a challenge, other by a grade, chair test, etc.
  36. In order for feedback to be effective, it should be:
    both negative and positive. (don't avoid negative!)
  37. According to the teacher of this course, the most important aspect of teaching is:
  38. Negative feedback should always be:
    without negative emotion? concise? (I think that's what she's looking for)
  39. What are the characteristics of effective rehearsal frames?
    • 1. Clear goal identified.
    • 2. Performance trials geared towards the goal. 
    • 3. Remember the three types of rehearsal modes (easy medium hard)
  40. Give an example of a close approximation of an end goal?
    (the one they give in the book) If you want to teach how to move air to play trombone, have the students move air in a trombone, not into a bread bag or something like that.
  41. According to Duke, what does it mean to "start from scratch"?
    "guide the student through the activities as if they had not learned them last time (but presumably a little faster)"
  42. Ideally, assessment should be:
    "continuous" "consistent" "frequent"
  43. To best facilitate transfer of knowledge in students, teachers should:
    continue to apply previously taught ideas to new music.
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