HLT 3301 Test 2 Review

  1. Psychoactive substances include:
    • Stimulants: nicotine, caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines
    • Depressants: alcohol, barbiturates, morphine, heroin
    • Hallucinogenics: marijuana, LSD, peyote

    Psychoactive substances are chemical compounds that affect the nervous system and espcially the brain
  2. The leading preventable cause of premature death in the United States at this time is
  3. The annual number of deaths in the United States that are attributable to smoking has been estimated to be about
  4. Quitting smoking continues to be difficult in the United States because
    • The addictive effects of nicotine - makes you feel relaxed
    • People believe smoking supresses hunger to so people are thinner
  5. The addictive aspect of tobacco use is probably caused by the chemical in
  6. Tobacco use is a risk factor for
    • Everyone
    • Skin, brain, mouth, throat, lung, heart, kidney, adrenal glands, and reproductive tracts
  7. The greater the number of cigarettes smoked, the greater the damage to the body. This factor is referred to as
    Dose-Response Relationship
  8. When smokers stop smoking they may feel discomfort due to a change in blood gases (more oxygen and less carbonmonoxide). One solution to this is
    • Provide social support from fellow smokers,
    • Training with print guides,
    • The use of nicotine patches or gum
    • Counseling
  9. A good friend wants to quit smoking and asks for advice. You might suggest
    Provide social support from fellow smokers, training with print guides, the use of nicotine patches or gum, and couseling

    • Continue to smoke - no
    • Trained hypnotist - no
    • Shock therapy - no
    • (Pick the one that isn't listed above)
  10. A detailed summary of scientific evidence about tobacco use being harmful to health
    Appeared as early as 1964 - surgeon warning on cigarettes started appearing
  11. Heavy drinking is defined as
    More then two drinks per day for men, and more then one drink per day for women
  12. Tolerance with regard to substances such as alcohol and other drugs refers to
    A greater and greater amount of the substance is required to achieve the desired effects
  13. Withdrawal effects from alcohol abuse vary from person to person, but usually include
    Nausea, vomitting, restlessness, sleeplessness, and depression
  14. Outcomes of alcohol use and abuse include
    • Alcohol Use –
    • • Repressions in speech, vision, and reaction time
    • • Cancers of mouth, esophagus, rectum, and lungs
    • • Diabetes and osteoporosis
    • • Damage to heart muscle and strokes
    • • Tolerance requires greater and greater amounts of alcohol to achieve the desired effects
    • • Dangerous withdrawal effects
    • • Liver damage—fibrosis and then cirrhosis

    • Alcohol Abuse –
    • • Serious vehicle “accidents” occur due to the effects of alcohol on drivers and passengers.
    • • Psychosis, violent crimes, homicides, suicides, falls, drowning, fires, freezing to death, poisoning, unwanted pregnancies, FASD, and miscarriages are associated with alcohol use.
  15. Stress plays an important role in
    • Everyday life
    • Physical, psychological, and sociocultural
  16. Stress is best defined as
    Physical and psychological reaction to a threat to a physical, psychological or social health
  17. Walter Cannon introduced the idea of a reaction to stress that he called
    Fight or Flight syndrome
  18. Selye's theory proposed stages that he called
    • General Adaptaion Syndrome (GAS)
    • Three stages - alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
  19. The biology of response to stressors includes
    Endocrine system, sympathetic nervous system, and autonomic nervous system
  20. Human responses to stressors include
    Unheathy behaviors, immune system change, and damage to the body
  21. According to Lazarus and Folkman's theory, the first time we face a stressful situation our ________ may be threatened
    Self esteem, body, and emotional state
  22. The most important factor in responding to stressors is
    your perception of the situation
  23. Stress can be measured by
    Polygraph tests or lie detectors, lab experiments, self reports, social readjustment rating scales, hassle scale, uplift scale

    Change in blood pressure and heart rate, self report scale
  24. Research has explored the idea that gender differences in illness and death rates may be related to gender differences in response to stressors. These include the following findings:
    Women feel more responsible, men are in denial, men are more likely to drive while intoxicated, women more likely to seek medical help
  25. Taylor and colleagues recently suggested that the female response to stress is more likely to be
    Tend and befriend rather then fight or flight
  26. Symptoms of stress include
    Sleeplessness, depression and more
  27. Stress is common in life, but it can be dealth with through
    • High self esteem
    • Strong social relationships
    • Exercise and good nutrional practices
    • Adequate rest and sleep
  28. Physiological changes occur when facing a stressor including
    Heart rate increases, dilation of the eyes, dry mouth, breathing harder
  29. Lazarus and Folkman believed that
    something about anxiety
  30. Origins of stress include
    Biological, psychological, or social, or some combination of the three
  31. An example of an acute stressor is
    Acute stressors - catastrophic events or aggravations in the environment involving extraordinary coping efforts (temporary)

    • Personal disasters - death of a spouse, breakup of a marriage, intense arguements
    • Public disasters - natural disaster (earthquake) or humanmade diasaster (bomb)
  32. An indicator that someone is experiencing stress is
    • Biological stressors include bacterial infections, broken bones, fatigue, pain, cancer, cold sores, physical disabilities, fever, coughing, and old age.

    • Psychological stressors include worry, grief, distraction, poor health, anger, hate, fear, and love.

    • Sociocultural stressors include war, poverty, job loss, violence, poor academic performance, poor work performance, caring for children, caring for elderly parents, and social isolation.

    -increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and drying of the mouth, difficulty sleeping and can over eat
  33. An indicator that someone is experiencing stress is
    isolate yourself from social conflict, depressed (emotional state things)
  34. Factors that may modify the negative effects of stress include
    Good nutritional practices, regular aerobic exercise, rest, and social support
  35. Our immune system protects us from infections through
    The circulatory and lymphatic systems
  36. Psychoneuroimmunology focuses in the effects of stress on the body including
    The endocrine, cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems (also psychological factors)
  37. Highly traumatic stressors may result in
    Post traumatic stress disorder, may trigger biopsychosocial behavioral problems
  38. In health psychology the term resilience refers to
    Resilience is the capacity to respond to adversity and recover quickly

    To an ability to maintain balance in the face of trauma and loss
  39. The main function of the immune system is to
    protect against infections
  40. Suppression or weakening of our immune systems
    is caused by stress

    makes it vulnerable
  41. Research shows that sports injuries result from
  42. When threatened with a stressor some people respond at the behavioral level by
    smoking more, overeating, and abusing substances such as alcohol
  43. In today's society common stressors are
    physical and psychological problems
  44. Proactive coping refers to
    Actions to prevent exposure to known stressors
  45. Stress management techniques include
    therapies including cognitive and behavioral interventions, biofeedback, stress inoculation training (SIT), guided imagery, meditation, deep breathing, and progressive muscle relaxation
  46. Coping responses may include
    Thinking about the threat (cognitive process), also called appraisal, intervene and prevent negative outcomes
  47. Coping is affected or shaped by
    Many factors including our emotional state, our personality, our previous experiences, our social relationships, our sociocultural backgrounds, and by resources available to us
  48. Reactions to the same stressful situation may include
    Hopeless, counseling/seeking advice and exploration of options
  49. An example of emotion focused coping
    • Focused coping is finding humor in the situation or seeking comfort
    • (emotion focused coping - coping directed toward managing the emotions or feelings aroused by a stressor)
  50. Cognitive coping strategies include
    Remembering other situations that improved with time, some may analyze, intellectualize, and then postpone facing stressful situations until they have a better perspective
Card Set
HLT 3301 Test 2 Review