Midterm Review

  1. Essential Government Functions
    Services that cannot be contracted out to private sectors

    • Law Enforcement (NYPD)
    • Fire Protection (FDNY)
    • Infrastructure (DDC/DOT)
    • Water/Sewer (DEP)
    • Sanitation (Dep of Sanitation)
    • Emergency Management (OEM)
  2. 6 Functions of Government
    The Preamble of the Constitution

    • 1. To form a more perfect union
    •     peaceful union
    • 2. To establish justice
    •     judicial system
    • 3. To insure domestic tranquility
    •     military; department of defense
    • 4. To provide for the common defense
    •    law enforcement
    • 5. To promote the general welfare
    •     social services
    • 6. To secure the blessings of liberty
    •     14th amendment; equal protection clause 
  3. Public Budgeting
    Used to decide what is most important and who gets what proportion
  4. Public Policy
    Attempt by government to address a public issue by instituting laws, regulations and procedures to resolve problems at hand
  5. Public Administration
    Development, implementation and study of government
  6. 3 questions for Disciplining Employees
    • Did they break rules/laws?
    • What is their employment status?
    • What kind of discipline can you take?
  7. Long Beach Decision
    • Provisional employees are not guaranteed protection.
    • Must take an exam, pass it and be taken off an eligible list to be civil servant.
    • Only civil servants have a permanent title
  8. Due Process
    The right to be heard
  9. Non- Attainable Goal
    A goal that cannot be achieved and impossible to establish an end result to.

    • *Eliminating crime
    • *Eliminating traffic fatalities
    • *Ensuring that every HS student graduates
  10. Attainable Goal
    A goal that can be measured, attained, realistic and timely

    • *Installing traffic lights at every intersection
    • *Supplying each public school kid with a textbook
    • *Having a lifeguard at every pool
  11. Social Contract Flow
    Image Upload 1
  12. State of War
    If the social contract involves active conflict.
  13. State of Nature
    Natural state of humans
  14. Filal Contract
    A contract that a child enters with their parent until they are of age. Parent is legally responsible for child
  15. Natutal Rights
    • Rights a person has upon entering social contract.
    • Cannot be given away.

    Life, Liberty, and Property
  16. When can a non-essential government function become essential?
    In a state of emergency
  17. Non-essential Government Functions
    A service that can be contracted out

    • Parks (Parks Dep)
    • Libraries (NYPL)
    • Hospitals (HHC)
    • Education (DOE)
    • Housing (HUD/NYCHA)
    • Employment
    • Employment
  18. Constitutional (Contractual) Rights
    • Afforded to you by the Bill of Rights
    • Can be temporarily suspended
    • Can be gotten back by way of petition to the state

    • Right to assembly
    • Freedom of Speech
    • Right to bear arms
    • Protection from unwarranted search & seizures
  19. Social Contract
    Humans agree to live together in Harmony for mutual benefit

    Acceptance of restrictions of certain liberties

    Assumptions of certain duties
  20. Public Budgeting
    Is used to decide what is most importatn and who gets what proportion
  21. Budgeting
    The process of systematically relating expenditure of funds to the accomplishment of planned objectives
  22. Budget Review
    A review of programs or services to determine what programs or services should be initaited and which should be expanded or curtailed
  23. Budget System

    1. Planning
    2. Management
    3. Control Process
    Planning- Budget prep with established goals and objectives

    Management- Programming of approved goals, resources, staffing & unit's functions

    Control Process- Standard operating procedure & audit functions
  24. Performance Based Budget
    Budget based upon the relationship between program funding levels & expected results from the program.

    Pro: Can improve performance b/c high-performing departments will continue to get funds.

    • Con: Fails to answer questions such as "what types of services are best suited for the program?"
  25. Zero Based Budget
    Expenses or costs of the prior year are not taken into account. All expenses must be justified.

    Pros: Helps identify areas of wasteful expenditures

    Con: Can be problematic for deprartment with intangible outputs. Is time consuming
  26. Program Based Budget
    A conventional budget that gives detailed costs of every activity or program that is to be carried out

    Pros: Simple & detailed; lays out the costs to run a program & what goes into those costs

    Con: Can take years to make sure there is sufficient funding available to maintain budget
  27. Cost-Benefit Analysis
    A technique of economic evaluation which values both cost and benefit in monetary terms.

    Necessary when dealing with public funds
  28. Permanent Employee Due Process Rights
    • *OATH (Office of Administrative Trial & Hearing)
    •         Administrative Judge can bring back employee or can decide to terminate

    • *Step process (Arbitration/Grievance Process)
    •        3 steps allowed
    •        Only the employee can appeal a decision, not an agency
Card Set
Midterm Review