Cardiovascular Disorders

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  1. What is cardiac output?  How is it calculated?
    Volume of blood ejected by a ventricle in one minute, depends on HR and stroke volume

    CO = HR x SV
  2. How does stroke volume vary?
    Varies with sympathetic stimulation and venous return
  3. What is cardiac reserve?
    The ability of the heart to increase output in response to increased demand.
  4. What is preload?
    The amount of blood delivered to the heart by venous return.
  5. What is afterload? How is it determined?
    The force required to eject blood from the ventricles and is determined by the peripheral resistance to the opening of the SL valves.
  6. What are the layers of the arteries and veins?
    From inside out: tunica intima, tunica media (smooth muscle), tunica adventita (elastic and collagen fibers).
  7. What is systolic pressure?
    Pressure exerted by the blood when ejected from the left ventricle.
  8. What is diastolic pressure?
    Pressure sustained when the ventricles are relaxed.
  9. What is pulse pressure?
    The difference between systolic and diastolic pressures.
  10. How is BP calculated?
    • BP = CO x PR
    • Blood pressure = cardiac output x peripheral resistance.
  11. What does NSR stand for?
    NSR stands for normal sinus rhythm, which is about 70 bpm.
  12. What is arteriosclerosis?
    Change in arteries where elasticity is lost and walls become thick and hard, lumen narrows and may become obstructed.
  13. What is atherosclerosis?
    The presence of plaques or atheromas that form mostly in large arteries like aorta and iliac, coronary, and carotid.
  14. Which is the "good" cholesterol and which is "bad"?
    LDL is bad, HDL is good.
  15. What are three non-modifiable risks for atherosclerosis?
    Age, gender, and genetics.
  16. What are 8 modifiable risks for atherosclerosis?
    Obesity, diet, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes mellitus (control it), hypertension, combo of oral contraceptives and smoking, combo of high blood cholesterol and high BP.
  17. What is angina?
    Chest pain where there is a deficit of O2 to the heart.
  18. What are three types of angina?
    Exertional, variant, and unstable.
  19. What is myocardial infarction?
    A totally obstructed coronary artery leading to ischemia and cell death of the heart wall.
  20. What is the most common cause of MI?
  21. What are some signs and symptoms of MI? (11-ish things)
    Pain (LA, shoulder, jaw, neck, sometimes "indigestion"), pallor & sweating, nausea, dizziness, weakness, and dyspnea, anxiety & fear, hypotension, fever
  22. What are 5 complications of MI?
    Death, cardiogenic shock, CHF, rupture of heart tissue, thromboembolism.
  23. What does MONA stand for?
    Morphine, oxygen, nitroglycerin, aspirin.
  24. Name three thrombolytic agents.
    Streoptokinase, urokinase, tissue plasminogen activator.
  25. What are two anticoagulants used after an MI?
    Warfarin, heparin.
  26. What is digoxin?
    A drug that supports heart function (made from foxglove)
  27. Besides drugs, what treatment happens after an MI?
    Cardiac rehab, including exercise, dietary modification, stress reduction.
  28. What are seven things that can cause arrhythmia?
    Damage to heart's conduction system, electrolyte imbalance, fever, hypoxia, stress, infection, drug toxicity.
  29. Does a very rapid heartbeat increase or decrease cardiac output?
    Decreases, prevention of adequate filling during diastole.
  30. What are three types of sinus node abnormalities?
    Bradycardia, tachycardia, and sick sinus syndrome.
  31. What is the most common type of dysrhythmia?
    Atrial conduction abnormalities
  32. What is cardiac arrest?
    The cessation of all activity in the heart.
  33. What are four causes of left-sided CHF?
    Infarction of L ventricle, aortic valve stenosis, hypertension, hyperthyroidism
  34. What are three causes of right-sided CHF?
    Infarction of R ventricle, pulmonary valve stenosis, pulmonary disease
  35. Two effects of left sided CHF?
    Decreased cardiac output, pulmonary congestion
  36. Three effects of R sided CHF?
    Decreased cardiac output, systemic congestion, edema of legs and abdomen
  37. What is hemoptysis?
    Coughing up blood.
  38. What is ascites? (uh-sigh-tees)
    Accumulation of serous fluid in abdominal cavity.
  39. At what stage of development do cardiac anomalies develop?
    8 weeks of development.
  40. What is the effect of a stenosis?
    Less blood flows through the narrowed opening.
  41. What is the effect of an incompetent valve?
    Blood flows freely forward, but then regurgitates backward.
  42. Large defects can lead to:
    Pallor, cyanosis, tachycardia, dyspnea, clubbing, intolerance for exercise, delayed growth & development
  43. What is the most common congenitial heart defect?
    Ventricular septal defect ("hole in the heart")
  44. What is the most common cyanotic congenital heart condition?
    Tetralogy of Fallot
  45. What are the four defects in the Tetralogy of Fallot?
    Pulmonary valve stenosis, ventricular septal defect, dextroposition of the aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy.
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Cardiovascular Disorders
Cardiovascular disorders
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