Occurs when a microorganism is able to survive exposure to an antibiotic. This may occur by
1)Spontaneous gene mutations, or 2) transferred between bacteria, commonly on plasmids?
Occurs when a microorganisms is able to survive exposure to an antibiotic. This may occur by?
1) Spontaneous gene mutations
2)transferred bacteria commonly on plasmids
-Appeared in US in 1981
- Transmitted by touch and respiratory droplets.
- Requires barrier protection when infected person in hospital
- Has developed resistance to beta-antibiotics (all-ilans & cephalosporins)
MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus)
- Can be transmitted fairly easily.
-Located to skin & surface tissue, such as boils.
-Outbreaks reported in prison, among athletic teams, among military recruits, newborns in nurseries
CA-MRSA Community Acquired MRSA
-First appeared in Japan in 1996
-Thickening of bacterial cell wall makes diffusion of vancomycin across more difficult
VISA Vancomycin Intermediate Staph Aureus
- First reported in US in 2002
- As of 2010, the CDC reports there are several drugs that are effective in treatment of disease.
- MRSA obtained genes from VRE (below) to become VRSA
VRSA Vancomycin Resistant Staph Aureus
- First reported in 1987
- Transmitted by contact of contaminated surfaces or caregivers hands. Not transmitted by coughing or sneezing
- Can be spread rapidly throughout hospital
- Doesn't affect healthy people: affect people already sick or weakened.
-Easily shares Vancomycin resistance genes with other bacteria!!!
-According to the CDC, most ? cases occur in hospitals
VRE Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus Faecium
- Klebsiella pneumonia and E.Coli are the major mambers of Enterobacteriaceae that can have carbapenams resistance enzymes
- Carbapenams are generally the treatment of last resort for Enterobacteriancae infections (When all else has failed, Carpabenams are used; hold back on use unless absolutely necessary
-Screening patients and communicating at patient transfers is very important, but not currently happening consistently
- Healty people do not get CRE infections. Weak, immunocomprimied, and recovering patients are vulnerable
CRE Carbapenam Resistant Enterobacterianceae