Psych Test #5

  1. Development psychology
    The study of how people grow, mature, and change over the life span
  2. Cross-sectional Studies
    People of different ages are tested and compared
  3. Longitudinal Studies
    The same people are tested at different times to track changes related to age
  4. Habituation
    The tendency for attention to a stimulus to wane over time; losing interest; often used to determine whether an infant has “learned” a stimulus
  5. Preferential looking
    Give baby a choice what to look at to see if they can discriminate between the two stimuli
  6. Grasping reflexes
    Automatic tendency to grasp an object that stimulates the palm; adaptive from primitive humans when babies grasped moms as they migrated
  7. Rooting reflex
    Baby turn heads when cheek is stimulated looking for nipple; used for for nutrition instinct
  8. Swallowing reflex
    when liquid is put into mouth, babies swallow
  9. Cephalocaudal
    Head to toe motor development; able to control head
  10. Proximodistal
    Center-outward motor development; ex. from arm to fingers
  11. Maturation
    Gradual unfolding of genetic blueprint
  12. Brian development in infants
    Babies come with a surplus of synapses; myelination continues after birth (visual pathways 6 mos.; auditory 4-5 yrs)
  13. Piaget's development theory
    Children actively construct their world through schemas, assimilation, and accommodation
  14. Schemas
    Theories about or models of the way the world works
  15. Assimilation
    Incorporate new info to existing schemas (or models about the way the world works)
  16. Accommodation
    adjusting existing schemas to incorporate new info (assimilate)
  17. Sensorimotor
    Stage 1; birth-2 yrs; coordinate sensations with movements and learning object permanence (when something is blocking an object, still know its there)
  18. Preoperational stage
    stage 2; 2-7 yrs old; Kids are able to think symbolically (pretend), egocentrism (think about selves and have a hard time understanding the viewpoints of others); and doesn't understand conservation and thinks intuitively
  19. Concrete operational
    Child begins to think logically about physical objects and events and understand understand conservation of physical properties; can't think about abstract ideas
  20. Formal operational stage
    Stage 4; 11-15 yrs; able to think abstractly and idealistically and hypothetically
  21. Theory of mind
    Understanding that human behavior is guided by mental representations
  22. Lev Vygotsky
    Lev Vygotsky believed children develop through interactions with members of his/her own culture (Joint attention, Social referencing, Imitation);
  23. Attachment
    A deep emotional bond that an infant develops with its primary caretaker; Harlow's Monkeys
  24. Critical Period
    something must happen at a certain time for proper development
  25. Mary Ainsworth
    Styles of Attachment
  26. Secure attachment
    The baby is secure when the parent is present, distressed by separation, and delighted by reunion
  27. Insecure Attachment
    The baby clings to the parent, cries at separation, and reacts with anger or apathy to reunion; ANGRY or UPSET
  28. Temperament
    Behavioral style or characteristic way of responding; three clusters of temperament (Easy, Difficult, Slow-to-warm-up); predictor to personality
  29. Moral reasoning
    Kohlberg's way of studying the way people think and try to solve moral dilemmas
  30. Preconventional Level
    Morality judged in terms of reward and punishment; Do the right thing because you’ll get in trouble if you don’t
  31. Conventional Stage
    Morality judged in terms of social order and approval; convention of society; Do the right thing in order to meet society's standards
  32. Postconventional Level
    Do the right thing according to your morals even if it brakes social rules and laws; abstract principles; Man breaks into pharmacy for dying wife
  33. Easy temperament
    generally positive and adapts easily
  34. Difficult temperament
    Negative reactions, cries a lot, does not adapt well
  35. Slow-to-warm-up temperament
    low activity level, low intensity of mood, not positive or negative, low adaptivity
Card Set
Psych Test #5