The Declaration of Independence states that when a government created by “the
consent of the governed” fails to protect their rights, the people have the
alter or abolish such government
The issue of prayers at school graduations and ball games was addressed by the
Supreme Court in Santa Fe v. Doe. The position of the Court was that
- the prayer is unconstitutional
- because it appears to be a state endorsement of religion.
Provisions of the Ninth and Tenth Amendments
convey divisions of power between state and federal governments
In the twentieth century the Supreme Court became increasingly more willing to
protect individuals against intrusive state actions. What instrument gave the
Supreme Court this authority?
- The Fourteenth Amendment’s due
- process clause
The Sixth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees
- in all criminal cases the accused shall … have the assistance of Counsel for
- his defense
In the case of Barron v. Baltimore (1833) a private citizen
attempted to apply the U.S. Constitution’s Fifth Amendment as the basis for a
state level civil suit. The court’s ruling
made the U.S. Bill of Rights not applicable to the state governments
In the case of Griswold v. Connecticut, the Supreme Court held that
- provisions of the Bill of Rights
- and the Fourteenth Amendment create a “zone of privacy.”
In the 1940s and 1950s, members of the Communist party were convicted for their
advocacy of _______, or calling for the overthrow of an existing system of
The Fourth Amendment has been used in defense of the
right of the people to be secure against unreasonable searches and seizures
The idea that the best test for truth is to present all arguments, valid and
invalid, is an example of
the “marketplace of ideas.”
The legal rule requiring that all evidence illegally obtained by police in
violation of the Bill of Rights must be excluded from admission in a court of
law is called the
Why did the Framers of the Constitution, such as James Madison, believe that a
Bill of Rights to guarantee individual rights was unnecessary at the federal
- They believed the federal
- government had only the powers it was explicitly given.
Who makes the determination that a particular action or law is in violation of
the free exercise clause of the First Amendment?
The U.S. Supreme Court
Charles Schenck, a leader of the American Socialist Party, was jailed for
distributing anti-draft leaflets during the early months of American involvement
in World War I. In the case of Schenck v. United States, the Supreme
Court rejected Schenck’s request for release and thus established the test of
free speech that
speech may be restricted when a “clear and present danger” exists
The primary purpose of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was to
- remove artificial barriers to voter participation such as literacy tests and
- poll taxes
Passive resistance to a law that is perceived as unjust by refusing to obey it
is known as a
The Civil War Amendments were a series of three race-related Constitutional
Amendments. These amendments were the
- Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and
Which type of law, passed in southern states during Reconstruction, required a
payment to the government before an individual could be allowed to vote?
Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 which
- banned discrimination in accommodations, both public and private, and
A social condition in which members of different groups possess substantially
the same rights to participate actively in the political system is referred to
Which term refers to equality and fair treatment within the various
institutions, both public and private that serve the public at large?
Among other provisions, the Fourteenth Amendment provided for
full citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States
In the “Civil Rights Cases” the Supreme Court held that
- private individuals may
- discriminate on the basis of race.
Which term applied to the variety of laws enacted by state and local governments
across the South in the late 1800s and early 1900s that required and enforced
Jim Crow laws
The purpose of the Twenty-fourth Amendment, ratified in 1964, was to
prohibit the use of state poll taxes in federal elections
Which of the following is NOT true of public opinion polls?
- They are the only means of
- reliably expressing public opinion.
An unscientific poll that gathers the opinions of people who are conveniently
available in a particular gathering place is called
a straw poll.
The most common method used to
determine public opinion isAnswer
the public opinion poll.
Many scholars use as a general definition of public opinion the
- summation of individual opinions
- on any particular topic.
What is the normal confidence interval percentage with a poll?
Often there are many factors and institutions that have a particularly relevant
impact on one’s socialization to politics. These factors and institutions are
agents of political socialization
According to the National Council on Public Polls, which of the following need
NOT be disclosed about any poll that is released publicly?
The names of interviewers
Which of the following is true concerning the political orientations of
- Political orientations tend to be
- very stable and lasting.
According to most research, how long is the process of acquiring political
values, beliefs, and opinions?
- A lifelong process beginning in
The amount of error in a poll that results from interviewing a group of people
rather than the whole population under study is referred to as
Beyond an “iron triangle,” a broader set of actors who all have a vested
interest in an area of public policy and try to collectively influence their
policy area is generally referred to as
an issue network.
Three sets of actors interact to produce policy: congressional committees,
executive agencies of government, and private interest groups. This grouping of
actors and interests is referred to as the
While membership numbers are important to an interest group, the wealth of its
members is also important. This is because
wealth impacts the level of financial contributions to political campaigns
During periods of rapid growth in federal spending, such as the New Deal of the
1930s and the Great Society of the 1960s, what has been the corresponding
response of interest groups?
The number of organized and active interest groups increased significantly
Which of the following would NOT be included in a list of economic interest
Animal rights groups
Which of the following would NOT be an advantage of interest group activity?
- Interest groups work to concentrate benefits for the few while distributing
- costs to the many
How many Americans are estimated
as belonging to at least one interest group?Answer
Approximately 80 percent
Between 1960 and 2000, the number of official associations (interest groups)
increased by about
An organization of people with shared goals that tries to influence public
policy through a variety of activities is called
an interest group.
Which theory says that public policy largely results from a variety of interest
groups competing with one another to promote laws that benefit members of their
How are interest groups legally protected in the United States?
- Through the First Amendment of
- the U.S. Constitution, which guarantees the right of the people “to peaceably
- assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances”
Often an individual will join and support a certain interest group to receive
tangible advantages from that membership. These advantages are referred to as
Which of the following is NOT a method that interest groups use to lobby for
Which of the following is the most influential interest group that lobbies for
the needs of the elderly?
- American Association for Retired
- People (AARP)
Which theory says that public policy is a product of whatever the majority of
The period between the national party conventions in the summer of the
presidential election year and the actual election in November is referred to as
general election campaign.
A handful of states do not hold elections for individual parties to select their
candidates. Instead, the party members are invited to attend local meetings at
which they choose delegates who make a commitment to a candidate for the party
nomination. This process is called
How does a candidate “win” the presidency in the Electoral College?
- He/she must receive an outright
- majority of all electoral votes.
The term “battleground state” refers to a state that
- either party has a chance of
- winning in the presidential election.
Which of the following is NOT a major source of campaign funding?
All states have a minimum of three electoral votes. The state with the most
electoral votes in the Electoral College is
Campaign contributions that go directly to the candidate are called
In 1824 Andrew Jackson was the first presidential candidate in American history
to win the popular vote but not win a majority of the Electoral College vote.
What happened as a result?
- The House of Representatives
- selected the president from the top vote getters.
The final determination of which candidate wins the presidential election is
the official results of the votes cast by electors in the Electoral College
A statewide election that selects delegates who will represent the state at the
party’s national convention is called a
Most states require that voters declare their party affiliation ahead of time
and, at the time of voting, can only vote in that party’s election. This process
a closed primary
Which of the following is NOT true of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of
- It requires that all federal candidates accurately disclose campaign
One theory states that certain elections can produce sharp changes in patterns
of party loyalty among voters, such as the election of 1860 in which Abraham
Lincoln won the presidency. This theory is called
critical election theory.
In regards to political parties, the term ”de-alignment” refers to
the decline in voter attachment to both parties
Which of the following was NOT a purpose of the earliest national party
- Forum for open debate between the
- two major national political parties
Woodrow Wilson’s victory in 1912 was the only Democratic presidential win
between 1896 and 1932. To what do most experts credit Wilson’s win?
- A third-party campaign by former
- Republican president Theodore
If a third-party candidate has no expectation of winning an election, what would
be a positive reason for him/her to run for the presidential office?
- To raise awareness of a
- particular ideology or cause
Which of the following is NOT a function of political parties?
- Establishing networks of business
Which of the following is true of voter turnout?
Women are slightly more inclined to vote than men
Which of the following is NOT an explanation for low voter turnout?
- The rise in general “social
What constitutional amendment guarantees women equal voting rights with men?
In the 1828 presidential election Andrew Jackson won decisively. Which of the
following was NOT a result of this important election?
- It solidified a one-party system by making it difficult to oppose this dominant
What constitutional amendment lowered the voting age to 18 in all local, state,
and federal elections?
The Whig Party was a dominant party for the 20 years immediately preceding the
Civil War By the 1850s the Whig Party began to witness serious divisions that
led to its demise. What was the basis of this split?
- Serious differences over the
- legality and morality of slavery
The person regarded as the father of the national party system is
The presidential proclamation of 1823 that there should be no further attempts
to colonize North and South America by European powers is known as the
A foreign policy that is the opposite of isolationism, one that advocates
economic and military actions to secure boundaries and interests worldwide is
Which political ideology opposes American interventions in distant wars or
involvement in permanent military alliances?
The “preemption doctrine” can be understood as
the right of the U. S. use advance strikes to stop states from developing WMDs
Which of the following is NOT a basis of the president’s increased power over
- He has been given extensive and
- specific constitutional powers to undertake the responsibilities of conducting
- foreign policy.
Though World War I began in Europe in 1914, the United States did not enter the
war until 1917. The primary reason for this delay was due to the fact that the
advocated and pursued a policy of isolationism and neutrality
The “new world order” declared by president George H. W. Bush in 1991 referred
- numerous nations working together
- for collective peace, security, and the rule of law.
Which of the following is NOT a program of the U.S. Department of State?
- Oversight of homeland
Politicians and presidential advisors who call for aggressive military action
wherever hostile forces may be found are often referred to as
What term is used to describe a nation’s activities directed at relations with
What is the executive body that plays a critical role in formulating and
implementing U.S. foreign policy through management of the nation’s military?
Department of Defense
Policy that deals with how to raise revenue through taxation and how to spend
the revenue generated is called
In the policy making process, the recognition/definition stage is one in which
- objectives to be fulfilled and goals to be pursued are first identified and
The amount of money spent by the government over and above what it collects in
taxes and other revenue in a single year is referred to as
Medicaid was designed to provide healthcare to the
In the policy making process, the stage in which the policy under consideration
assumes the authority of law through an act of Congress or regulations issued by
administrative agencies is called the ________ stage.
The period in which the budget process must be completed from start to finish is
- the first Monday in February
- through October 1.
In the policy making process, the
stage in which the policy is assessed for its worth and effectiveness in meeting
its original objectives and goals is called the __________ stage.
Regulation of the money supply and interest rates by a central bank, such as the
U.S. Federal Reserve Board, in order to control inflation and stabilize currency
What is one practical use by the federal government for the Consumer Price Index
- It helps determines the cost of
- living increases in federal social security benefits.
An economic slowdown
characterized by higher unemployment, reduced productivity, or some other
negative economic indicators is known asAnswer
Which of the following is NOT a purpose of the federal budget?
- It sets limits on the
- profitability of key industries and service companies.
Approximately how long after the creation of social security were Medicare and
Medicaid added to the American social welfare system?
What are guaranteed government
benefits that certain citizens depend upon for subsistence?Answer
A set of laws, regulations, and rules that affect the whole of society is
referred to as