Vitamins and Minerals

  1. Many animal diets include limestone as a mineral supplement because it is a great source of this nutrient (~36% by mass)

  2. Greater concentrations of parathyroid hormone directly cause which of the following responses:
    activation of vitamin D

  3. This form of phosphorus is poorly available in pigs and chickens, but rumen bacteria help make it available in ruminants.

  4. Name the hormonal form of vitamin D that stimulates active absorption of calcium.
  5. Baby pig anemia is a classic sign for a deficiency of this element

  6. In the mid-1900s, as we began to raise pigs in confinement, nutrition scientists discovered that this supplementation with this trace mineral was necessary.  Parakeratosis is the classic deficiency sign.

  7. One of the first visible signs of severe acute hypocalcemia.
    unstable gait or inability to get up

  8. A trace mineral supplement contains 0.15% Zn.  How many ppm is this?

  9.  The active ingredient in many rodenticides is a compound that interferes with vitamin K and thus causes death from:
    internal hemorrhage

  10. Toxicity is a much greater concern than deficiency for this essential nutrient.
    • lead
  11. Little Fifi (a puppy) is spoiled.  She is fed only red meat and stays indoors all day.  After 6 months, this problem is likely:
  12. Iron deficiency would be most likely if an animal is fed a diet (without supplemention) of all:
  13. Potassium deficiency would be most likely if an animal is fed a diet (without supplemention) of all:
    corn and soybean meal
  14. Most animals should be supplemented with this in Michigan, but a deficiency is less likely in Nebraska or Colorado.
    Selenium (Se)
  15. Most animals should be supplemented with this regardless of their diet or location.
    Sodium (Na)
  16. Iodine is usually supplemented to animals and humans, often by its addition to table salt.  Why? (3 reasons)
    • it is a component of thyroid hormones
    • deficiency causes goiter
    • deficiency impairs thermoregulation
  17. Your mom was right when she said, “Eat your carrots!  They are good for your eyes!”, because carrots have a lot of this compound.

  18. This positively-charged electrolyte helps regulate cellular osmolarity and assists in ion transport across cell membranes and is usually found in high concentrations outside the cell:
  19. Why is supplementation with trace minerals and vitamins more important for a lamb fed a high grain diet than an all hay diet?          
    grain promotes faster growth rate but has fewer micronutrients per energy

  20. Antioxidants likely improve health and longevity.  A good source is:
    • carrots
    • tomatoes
    • watermelon
    • vitamin C
    • plants (pigments)
    • dark chocolate (procyanidins)
    • grapes (proanthocyanidins/resveratrol)
    • cranberries (proanthocyanidins)
    • red wine (resveratrol)
    • tea (catechin)
  21. how do vitamin E and selenium function as the "anti-oxidant team"?
    • vitamin E prevents formation of lipid peroxides, and selenium is a cofactor in glutathione peroxidase that destroys lipid peroxides once they form.
    • (lipid peroxides form cellular free radicals)
  22. what are the three anti metabolites to vitamin K?
    • dicoumarol
    • warfin
    • brodifacoum
  23. what are the fat soluble vitamins?
    • A
    • D
    • E
    • K
  24. what is the most bioavalible form of iron and what is a source of it?
    heme-iron, animal products (red meat, fish, poultry)
  25. what are examples of trace minerals?
    • molybdenum (Mo)
    • Flourine (F)
    • Lead (Pb)
    • Argon (Ar)
    • Mercury (Hg)
    • Cadmium (Cd)
    • Zinc (Zn)
  26. what are deficiency signs of Selenium
    • muscle degeneration: white muscle disease, stiff lamb disease
    • liver necrosis
    • exudative diathesis
    • infertility in ewes
  27. what are some toxicity signs of selenium and how can it be fixed?
    • alkali disease: blind staggers
    • can counteract with arsenic
  28. what is a function of iodine?
    synthesis of thyroid hormones T3/T4(triiododthyronine/thyroxine)
Card Set
Vitamins and Minerals
test five