PSYC 1100 Section 2.4 Simple Forms of Learning

  1. Non-associative Learning
    • Habituation: decrease in responsiveness with repeated stimulation
    • - Ignoring things you now don't think as important
    • Sensitization: increase in responsiveness with repeated stimulation
    • - Horror movies make you more sensitive
  2. Associative Learning
    • -Two or more stimuli are associated
    • -The most fundamental form of learning is classical or Pavlovian conditioning
    • -Operant or instrumental conditioning
    • -Pavlov won the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine for his study of reflexes. He was one of the first people to study learning scientifically
  3. Classical Conditioning
    • Alphabet soup:
    • US - unconditioned stimulus: food
    • UR - unconditioned response: salivation to food (reflex)
    • CS - conditioned stimulus: tuning fork (neutral stimulus before conditioning)
    • CR - conditioned response: salivation to tuning fork
  4. Classical Conditioning
    • 1. reflux: US => UR
    • 2. take a previously neutral stimulus (CS)
    • 3. and if CS is repeatedly paired with US
    • 4. then eventually, CS elicits CR
  5. What are the temporal conditions that allow for classical conditioning to take place?
    • - Simultaneous: US and CS presented at the same time
    • - Backwards: US is presented before CS
    • - Short delay: CS is presented before US
    • - Long delay: CS is presented way before US 

    • Short delay conditioning is more effective
    • temporal contiguity - important factor for classical conditioning
    • Order (CS before US)
    • - predictability, anticipation
  6. Classical Conditioning Phenomena
    • Acquisition: CS presented with US
    • Extinction: A reduction in the CR occurs when the CS is presented without the US
    • - presenting the tuning fork without the food for a long period of time
    • Spontaneous recovery: the reappearance of an extinguished CR following an interruption of extinction
    • - presenting the tuning fork again the next day leads to a slight response recovery although the response decreased the day before
    • Generalization: After conditioning to a specific CS, organism responds to a different CS
    • -  the different CS is usually similar to the first CS (blue light and similar blue light)
    • Discrimination: organism perceives the difference between the two CS's, and behaves differently depending on which is presented.
    • - the different CS is different than the first CS (blue light vs. red light)
  7. Broad Significance of Classical Conditioning
    • More than just salivation in dogs…
    • Many different types of CSs and USs,
    • Many different types of CRs and URs,
    • Very general across most animals, including humans.
  8. Semantic Conditioning
    human classical conditioning, words are used as the CS
  9. Studies show large generalization to the meaning of the word
    • CS = "surf" visually presented, classical conditioning is acquired 
    • What did it generalize to?
    • - Largest generalization to:
    • "wave" and "beach"
    • CS = "cow", generalization occurred to "grain", "tractor", and "corn"
    • Indicates that conditioning occurred to the meaning of a word
  10. Conditioned Emotional Response (CER) Conditioning
    • Classical conditioning in which the UR and the CR involve emotional responses
    • Emotional responses can be conditioned in the lab (early work of Watson; associated fear in a baby with a pet rat, it later generalized to a seal skin coat)
    • Many researchers think that phobias can be conditioned
    • - e.g. association of stimuli with traumatic stress (combat sounds, bridges associated with earthquake)
  11. Immune System Conditioning
    • CS (saccharine)
    • US (drug cytoxan; decreases T-lymphocytes)
    • UR => immune system suppression after cytoxan injection
    • After several CS-US pairings, tasting saccharine solution decreases number of T-lymphocytes
    • - psychoneuroimmunology
    • - classical conditioning can lead to physiological changes 
    • It's possible that conditioning mechanisms could contribute to development of infectious diseases, by leading to immunosuppresion
Author
rolliespring
ID
246226
Card Set
PSYC 1100 Section 2.4 Simple Forms of Learning
Description
Sec 2.4
Updated