chapter 1-8

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  1. Who discover X rays?
    Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
  2. Location where x-rays are produced?
    positive anode
  3. location where thermionic emission occurs?
    negative cathode
  4. Protons
    carry positive electrical charges, whereas neutrons carry no electric charge.
  5. Nucleus
    dense core of the atom, is composed of particles know as protons and neutrons
  6. Molecule
    Two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds or the smallest amount of a substance that possesses its characteristics properties.

    Tiny visible particles
  7. The milliamperage range used in dentristry
    7-15 MA
  8. the kilovolotage range used in dentistry
    65-100 KV
  9. the overall blackness or darkness of a film
  10. the differences in the degree of blackness on a film is
  11. the dark or black part of a film is said to be
  12. The electrons travel from
    the Cathode to the Anode
  13. Primary Radiation
    Radiation that exits the tubehead
  14. Scatter radiation
    Radiation that has been defected from its path by interaction with matter
  15. 70% of all the xray every produced at the anode
    General radiation
  16. secondary radiation
    is created when the primary beam interacts with matter

    matter includes the soft tissues of the head, bones of the skull and the teeth
  17. What happens after an x-ray exits the tubehead?

    when the xray photons arrive at the patient with energies produced:
    x-rays can pass through the patient without any interaction

    x-ray photons can be completely absorbed by the patient

    x-rays photons can be scattered
  18. the light or white part of film is said to be
  19. an X-ray with the very light and very dark areas has
    High Contrast
  20. an x-ray with many shades of gray has
    low contrast
  21. a higher kilovoltage produces a film with
    shades of gray or low contrast
  22. quality of x-ray beam is controlled by
  23. quantity of the x-ray beam is controlled by
  24. Amperage
    is the measurement of the number of electorns moving through a conductor.
  25. Amperes
  26. milliamperage
  27. kilovoltage peak
  28. voltage is measure in
    volts (v) or kilovolts (kV)
  29. Recommended size of the bream at the patient face
    2.75 inches
  30. measure of the exposure times
  31. number of impulses in one second
  32. a lower kilovoltage produces a film with
    black and white areas or high contrast
  33. during xray production, electrons travel from
    cathode to anode
  34. the MPD for a occupationally expose person
    5 ram per year
  35. xray beam must be perpendicular to tooth and film to minimize
    dimensional distortion
  36. distinct outlines of an object on an xray
  37. two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds
  38. to increase the penetrating quality of the beam, increase
  39. scatter radiation
    is produce during all exposures
  40. effects of repeated exposure to radiation
  41. the lead foil sheet in the film packet
    to protect the film from black scatter
  42. higher kilovoltage produces xrays with
    greater energy, shorter wave, length more penetrability
  43. duplication film is never used where
  44. restricts the size of the primary beam
  45. filters are me of
  46. primary reason for exposing radiographs is for
    diagnosis and detection
  47. how often a patient should have FMS
    as determined by pats needs
  48. the collimator is made of
  49. radiation intensity
    decrease with increased distance
  50. image on a film before it is processed
    intent image
  51. never use a
    thyroid collar to protect a patient from extraoral radiography
  52. ALARA
    stands for as low as reasonably achivable
  53. dose of radiation the body can endure with little of no chance of injury
  54. If the PID length is increased
    it radiation to the patient
  55. the aluminum filter absorbs
    low every rays
  56. bundles of energy
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chapter 1-8
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