Development and Stuff

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  1. Zygote
    • the fertilized egg
    • it enters a two-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
  2. Embryo
    the developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through the second month
  3. Fetus
    the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
  4. Teratogens
    agents that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    physical and cognitive abnormalities caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
  6. Maturation
    biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
  7. Cognition
    all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
  8. Schema
    a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
  9. Assimilation
    interpreting our new experience in terms of our existing schemas
  10. Accomodation
    adapting our current understanding to incorporate new information
  11. Sensorimotor Stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years old) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
  12. Object Permanence
    the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
  13. Preoperational Stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2-6 or 7 years old) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
  14. Conservation
    the principle (which Piaget believed to be apart of operational concrete reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
  15. Egocentrism
    in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
  16. Theory of Mind
    people's ideas about their own and others' mental states-- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict
  17. Concrete Operational Stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6-11) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
  18. Formal Operational Stage
    in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning at about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
  19. Scaffolding
    needed for children to step to higher levels of thinking (e.g. parents, mentors, etc)
  20. Stranger Anxiety
    the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
  21. Critical Period
    an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
  22. Imprinting
    • the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period by mimicking the moves of adult models
    • Children do not imprint, but they do become attached to what they've known
  23. Infants w/Secure Attachment
    • play comfortably in their mother's presence in strange situation
    • distressed when mother leaves
    • seeks contact with mother when she returns
  24. Insecure Attachment
    • less likely to explore or may even cling to their mother
    • when she leaves they either cry loudly and remain upset or seem indifferent when she leaves or returns
  25. Basic Trust
    • according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
    • Said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
  26. Self-Concept
    our understanding and evaluation of who we are
  27. Authoritarian parenting style
    • parents impose rules and expect obedience
    • Those with authoritarian parents tend to have less social skill and self esteem
  28. Permissive
    • parents submit to their children's desires
    • make few demands and use little punishment
    • Those w/permissive parents ten to be more aggressive and immature
  29. Authoritative
    • parents are both demanding and responsive
    • Exert control by setting rules and enforcing them, but they also explain reasons for rules and allow open discussion when making rules and allow exceptions
  30. Adolescence
    the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
  31. Puberty
    the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
  32. Primary Sex Characteristics
    body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
  33. Secondary Sex Characteristics
    non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality and body hair
  34. Menarche
    the first menstrual period
  35. Anorexia Nervosa
    • an eating disorder in which a person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet still feeling fat, continues to starve
    • occurs to 0.6% of the US
  36. Bulimia Nervosa
    • an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
    • occurs to 1% of the US
  37. Binge-Eating Disorder
    significant binge eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but w/o the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise of bulimia nervosa
  38. Three Basic Levels of Moral Thinking found by Kohlberg
    • Preconventional Morality
    • Conventinoal Morality
    • Postconventional Morality
  39. Preconventional Morality
    • Before Age 9, morality focuses on self-interest
    • Obeys rules to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards
  40. Conventional Morality
    By early adolescence, morality focuses on caring for others and on upholding laws and social rules, simply because they are laws and rules
  41. Postconventional Morality
    Actions are judged "right" because they flow from people's rights or from self-defined, basic ethical principles
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Development and Stuff
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