1. Accessibility The likelihood and ease with which information can be recalled from LTM. Ch. 9 324
  2. Acculturation The degree to which an immigrant has adapted to his or her new culture. Ch. 5 165
  3. Achievement role Based on performance criteria over which the individual has some degree of control. Ch. 3 101
  4. Active problem A problem that the consumer is aware of or will become aware of in the normal course of events. Ch. 14 502
  5. Actual self concept The actual self-concept refers to the individual�s perception of who I am now. Ch. 12 428
  6. Actual state The way an individual perceives his or her feelings and situation to be at the present time. Ch. 14 500
  7. Ad avoidance Ways for consumers to selectively avoid exposure to advertising messages. Ch. 8 280
  8. Adaptation level theory Deals with the phenomenon of people adjusting to the level and type of stimuli to which they are exposed. Ch. 8 289
  9. Adopter categories Five groups of adopters of any given innovation based on the relative time at which they adopt. Ch. 7 253
  10. Adoption process A series of distinct steps or stages individual consumers presumably go through. Ch. 7 249
  11. Advertising wearout An effect where too much repetition causes consumers to actively shut out the message
    evaluate it negatively
  12. Aesthetic appeal Tap consumers' affective reactions by going beyond the cognitive associations of functionality. Ch. 11 396
  13. Affective choice Choice based on the evaluation of a product generally focused on the way they will make the user feel as the product is used. Ch. 16 552
  14. Affective component Feelings or emotional reactions to an object. Ch. 11 395
  15. Affective interpretation The emotional or feeling response triggered by a stimulus such as an ad. Ch. 8 294
  16. Affective performance The emotional response that owning or using the product or outlet provides. Ch. 18 636
  17. Age cohort A group of persons who have experienced a common social
  18. Ambivalent attitude Ambivalent attitude
    involves holding mixed beliefs and/or feelings about an attitude object. Ch. 11 399
  19. Ambush marketing Involves any communication or activity that implies
    or from which one could reasonably infer
  20. Analogical reasoning Occurs when a consumer uses an existing knowledge base to understand a new situation or object. Ch. 9 331
  21. Analytical reasoning The most complex form of cognitive learning. Ch. 9 331
  22. Antecedent states Features of the individual person that are not lasting characteristics. Ch. 13 481
  23. Approach�approach conflict When a consumer who must choose between two attractive alternatives. Ch. 10 371
  24. Approach�avoidance conflict When a consumer facing a purchase choice with both positive and negative consequences. Ch. 10 372
  25. Asch phenomenon The na�ve subject almost always agrees with the incorrect judgment of the others. Ch. 7 237
  26. Ascribed role Based on an attribute over which the individual has little or no control. Ch. 3 101
  27. Aspiration reference groups Nonmembership groups with a positive attraction. Ch. 7 228
  28. Atmospherics The process mangers use to manipulate the physical retail environment to create specific mood responses in shoppers. Ch. 13 475
  29. Atmospherics The process managers use to manipulate the physical retail or service environment to create specific mood responses in shoppers. Ch. 17 606
  30. Attention Occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves
    and the resulting sensations go to the brain for processing. Ch. 8 283
  31. Attitude An enduring organization of motivational
  32. Attitude based choice Involves the use of general attitudes
    summary impressions
  33. Attribute based choice Requires the knowledge of specific attributes at the time the choice is made
    and it involves attribute-by-attribute comparisons across brands. Ch. 16 554
  34. Attribute framing Where only a single attribute is the focus of the frame. Ch. 11 415
  35. Attribution theory An approach to understanding the reasons consumers assign particular meanings to the behaviors of others. Ch. 10 363
  36. Avoidance�avoidance conflict A choice involving only undesirable outcomes. Ch. 10 372
  37. Awareness set List of brands thought of as a potential solution. Ch. 15 521
  38. Behavioral component One's tendency to respond in a certain manner toward an object or activity. Ch. 11 397
  39. Behavioral targeting Involves tracking consumer click patterns on a Web site and using that information to decide on banner ad placement. Ch. 15 530
  40. Benefit chain Where a product or brand is repeatedly shown to a consumer who names all the benefits that possession or use of the product might provide until the consumer can no longer identify additional benefits. Ch. 10 368
  41. Benefit segmentation Segmenting consumers on the basis of their most important attribute or attributes. Ch. 11 416
  42. Blended family A family consisting of a couple
    one or both of whom were previously married
  43. Blind tests A test in which the consumer is not aware of the product's brand name. Ch. 16 564
  44. Blogs Personalized journals where people and organizations can keep a running dialogue. Ch. 7 246
  45. Born-again Christians Characterized by a strong belief in the literal truth of the Bible
    a very strong commitment to their religious beliefs
  46. Bots Software "robots" that do the searching for users. Ch. 15 528
  47. Bounded rationality A limited capacity for processing information. Ch. 16 550
  48. Brand community A nongeographically bound community
    based on a structured set of social relationships among owners of a brand and the psychological relationship they have with the brand itself
  49. Brand equity The value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond the functional characteristics of the product. Ch. 9 347
  50. Brand extension Where an existing brand extends to a new category with the same name. Ch. 8 303
  51. Brand familiarity An ability factor related to attention. Ch. 8 291
  52. Brand image The schematic memory of a brand. Ch. 9 342
  53. Brand leverage Often termed
    family branding
  54. Brand loyalty A biased behavioral response expressed over time by a decision-making unit with respect to one or more alternative brands out of a set of such brands that is a function of psychological processes. Ch. 18 641
  55. Brand personality A set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand. Ch. 10 376
  56. Buying centers Consist of individuals from various areas of the firm
    such as accounting
  57. Buzz The exponential expansion of WOM. Ch. 7 246
  58. Cause-related marketing (CRM) Marketing that ties a company and its products to an issue or cause with the goal of improving sales or corporate image while providing benefits to the cause. Ch. 3 96
  59. Children's Advertising Review Unit (CARU) A special unit
    maintained by the National Advertising Division of the Council of Better Business Bureaus
  60. Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) Requires that commercial websites that collect personal information from children under 13 obtain prior parental consent before they collect that information. Ch. 20 708
  61. Churn Used to refer to turnover in a firm's customer base. Ch. 18 642
  62. Class to mass A movement in which companies are expanding opportunities for less affluent consumers to afford luxury. Ch. 4 121
  63. Classical conditioning The process of using an established relationship between a stimulus and response to bring about the learning of the same response to a different stimulus. Ch. 9 328
  64. Closure Presenting an incomplete stimulus with the goal of getting consumers to complete it and thus become more engaged and involved. Ch. 8 298
  65. Co-branding Also referred to as co-marketing
    brand alliances
  66. Cognitive age One's perceived age
    a part of one's self-concept. Ch. 4 124
  67. Cognitive component Consists of a consumer's beliefs about an object. Ch. 11 392
  68. Cognitive interpretation A process whereby stimuli are placed into existing categories of meaning. Ch. 8 294
  69. Cognitive learning Encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations. Ch. 9 331
  70. Cohort analysis The process of describing and explaining the attitudes
  71. Committed customer Has an emotional attachment to the brand or firm. Ch. 18 641
  72. Communications situation The situation in which consumers receive information. Ch. 13 471
  73. Community Characterized by consciousness of kind
    shared rituals and traditions
  74. Comparative ads Directly compare the features or benefits of two or more brands. Ch. 11 412
  75. Compensatory decision rule States that the brand that rates the highest on the sum of the consumer's judgments of the relevant evaluative criteria will be chosen. Ch. 16 571
  76. Concepts Abstractions of reality that capture the meaning of an item in terms of other concepts. Ch. 9 320
  77. Conceptual model A model that does not contain sufficient detail to predict particular behaviors but contains the beliefs about the general nature of a given theory. Ch. 1 26
  78. Conditioning Learning based on the association of a stimulus (information) and response (behavior or feeling). Ch. 9 326
  79. Conjoint analysis The most popular indirect measurement approach
    the consumer is presented with a set of products or product descriptions in which the evaluative criteria vary. Ch. 16 560
  80. Conjunctive decision rule Establishes minimum required performance standards for each evaluative criterion and selects the first or all brands that surpass these minimum standards. Ch. 16 565
  81. Consideration set Those brands or products one will evaluate for the solution of a particular consumer problem. Ch. 15 521
  82. Conspicuous consumption The purchase and use of automobiles
  83. Consumer behavior The study of individuals
  84. Consumer cost Everything the consumer must surrender in order to receive the benefits of owning/using the product. Ch. 1 22
  85. Consumer ethnocentrism Reflects an individual difference in consumers' propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products. Ch. 10 375
  86. Consumer literacy Consumer literacy is defined as "the ability to find and manipulate text and numbers to accomplish consumption-related tasks within a specific market context in which other skills and knowledge are also employed." Ch. 4 120
  87. Consumer skills Those capabilities necessary for purchases to occur such as understanding money
  88. Consumer socialization The process by which young people acquire skills
  89. Consumer-to-consumer sale Occurs when one consumer sells a product directly to another with or without the assistance of a commercial intermediary. Ch. 18 632
  90. Consummatory motives Underlie behaviors that are intrinsically rewarding to the individual involved. Ch. 16 552
  91. Consumption guilt Occurs when negative emotions or guilt feelings are aroused by the use of a product or a service. Ch. 18 624
  92. Consumption subculture A distinctive subgroup of society that self-selects on the basis of a shared commitment to a particular product class
  93. Consumption-related attitudes Cognitive and affective orientations toward marketplace stimuli such as advertisements
  94. Consumption-related preferences The knowledge
  95. Contextual cues Play a role in consumer interpretation independent of the actual stimulus in a situation. Ch. 8 296
  96. Coping Coping involves consumer thoughts and behaviors in reaction to a stress-inducing situation designed to reduce stress and achieve more desired positive emotions. Ch. 10 381
  97. Corporate culture Often used to refer to the organizational culture of a business firm. Ch. 19 680
  98. Corrective advertising Advertising run by a firm to cause consumers to unlearn inaccurate information they acquired as a result of the firm's earlier advertising. Ch. 20 715
  99. Cross-promotions Whereby signage in one area of the store promotes complementary products in another. Ch. 8 303
  100. Cultural values Widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. Ch. 2 43
  101. Cultural values Widely held beliefs that affirm what is desirable. Ch. 3 82
  102. Culture The complex whole that includes knowledge
  103. Customer loyalty programs Programs focused on generating not only repeat customers but also committed ones thereby requiring a customer-focused attitude in the firm. Ch. 18 646
  104. Customer satisfaction When customers are satisfied with their purchase and the use of the product. Ch. 1 23
  105. Customer value The difference between all the benefits derived from a total product and all the costs of acquiring those benefits. Ch. 1 11
  106. Decision-making units (DMUs) The individuals (representing functional areas and management) within an organization who participate in making a given purchase decision. Ch. 19 670
  107. Demand The willingness to buy a particular product or service. Ch. 10 367
  108. Demographics Describe a population in terms of its size
  109. Demographics Describe a population in terms of its size
  110. Desired state The way an individual wants to feel or be at the present time. Ch. 14 500
  111. Diffusion process The manner in which innovation spread throughout a market. Ch. 7 251
  112. Digital Savvy Digital Savvy consumers are leading-edge digital users who are early adopters and diffusers of information related to technology in terms of (1) technology ownership
    (2) Internet usage
  113. Disjunctive decision rule Establishes a minimum level of performance for each important attribute. Ch. 16 566
  114. Disposition situation Refers to the frequent issue faced by consumers of disposing products or product packages after or before product use. Ch. 13 473
  115. Dissociative reference groups Groups with negative desirability. Ch. 7 228
  116. Distribution Having the product available where target customers can buy it. Ch. 1 22
  117. E waste Waste caused by an exploding demand and short product life-spans for high-tech gadgets such as cell phones
    personal computers
  118. Early adopters Tend to be opinion leaders in local reference groups. Ch. 7 254
  119. Early majority Consumers who tend to be cautious about innovations. Ch. 7 254
  120. Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) A theory about how attitudes are formed and changed under varying conditions of involvement as described earlier. Ch. 11 404
  121. Elaborative activities The use of previously stores experiences
  122. Elimination-by-aspects decision rule Requires the consumer to rank the evaluative criteria in terms of their importance and to establish a cutoff point for each criterion. Ch. 16 567
  123. Embarrassment A negative emotion influenced both by the product and the situation. Ch. 13 478
  124. Emotion Strong
    relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect behavior. Ch. 10 379
  125. Emotional ads Designed primarily to elicit a positive affective response rather than provide information or arguments. Ch. 11 414
  126. Enduring involvement A greater long-term involvement with the product category than the non-opinion leaders in the group. Ch. 7 242
  127. Environment-oriented values Prescribe a society's relationship to its economic and technical as well as its physical environment. Ch. 2 45
  128. Enviropreneurial marketing Enviropreneurial marketing is environmentally friendly marketing practices
  129. Episodic memory The memory of a sequence of events in which a person participated. Ch. 9 321
  130. Ethnic subcultures Broadly defined as those whose members' unique shared behaviors are based on a common
  131. Evaluative criteria The various dimensions
  132. Event marketing Creating or sponsoring an event that has a particular appeal to a market segment. Ch. 5 164
  133. Evoked set Those brands or products one will evaluate for the solution of a particular consumer problem. Ch. 15 521
  134. Explicit memory Characterized by the conscious recollection of an exposure event. Ch. 9 325
  135. Exposure Occurs when a stimulus comes within range of our sensory receptor nerves. Ch. 8 279
  136. Extended decision making Involves an extensive internal and external information search followed by a complete evaluation of multiple alternatives and significant postpurchase evaluation. Ch. 14 499
  137. Extended self Consists of the self plus possessions. Ch. 12 429
  138. External reference price A price presented by a marketer for the consumer to use to compare with the current price. Ch. 17 598
  139. External reference price A price provided by the manufacturer or retailer in addition to the actual current price of the product. Ch. 20 719
  140. External search Occurs when the search process is focused on external information relevant to solving the problem. Ch. 15 518
  141. Extinction Or forgetting occurs when the reinforcement for the learned response is withdrawn
    the learned response is no longer used
  142. Family decision making The process by which decisions that directly or indirectly involve two or more family members are made. Ch. 6 207
  143. Family household A household consisting of a family and any unrelated people residing in the same housing unit. Ch. 6 195
  144. Fear appeals The threat of negative (unpleasant) consequences if attitudes or behaviors are not altered. Ch. 11 411
  145. Figure�ground Presenting the stimulus in such a way that it is perceived as the focal object to be attended to and all other stimuli are perceived as the background. Ch. 8 299
  146. Firmographics Involve both organization characteristics and characteristics of the composition of the organization. Ch. 19 680
  147. Five-Factor Model A multitrait theory used to identify five basic traits that are formed by genetics and early learning. Ch. 10 374
  148. Flashbulb memory Flashbulb memory is acute memory for the circumstances surrounding a surprising and novel event. Ch. 9 322
  149. Gender Whether a person is biologically male or female. Ch. 3 101
  150. Gender identity Refers to the traits of femininity or masculinity. Ch. 3 101
  151. Gender role The behaviors considered appropriate for males and females in a given society. Ch. 3 101
  152. Generation A group of persons who have experienced a common social
  153. Generic problem recognition A discrepancy that a variety of brands within a product category can reduce. Ch. 14 508
  154. Geo-demographic analysis Based on the premise that lifestyle
    and thus consumption
  155. Gerontographics A segmentation approach to the mature market that is based on the physical health and mental outlook of older consumers. Ch. 4 125
  156. Goal framing Where "the message stresses either the positive consequences of performing an act or the negative consequences of not performing the act." Ch. 11 415
  157. Green marketing Involves (1) developing products whose production
  158. Group Two or more individuals who share a set of norms
  159. Guanxi Literally translated as personal connections/relationships on which an individual can draw to secure resources or advantages when doing business as well as in the course of social life. Ch. 2 61
  160. Hemispheric lateralization Applies to activities that take place on each side of the brain. Ch. 8 292
  161. High-involvement learning A situation in which the consumer is motivated to process or learn the material. Ch. 9 325
  162. Hispanic A person of Cuban
  163. HLC/occupational category matrix Determines the problems the household will likely encounter and provides a range of acceptable solutions. Ch. 6 206
  164. Household All the people who occupy a housing unit. Ch. 6 195
  165. Household life cycle (HLC) Based on the age and marital status of the adult member of the household and the presence and age of children. Ch. 6 197
  166. Humorous appeals Ads built around humor which appear to increase attention to and liking of the ad. Ch. 11 412
  167. Iconic rote learning The association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditioning. Ch. 9 331
  168. Ideal self concept The ideal self-concept refers to the individual�s perception of who I would like to be. Ch. 12 428
  169. Identification influence Also called value-expressive
    occurs when individuals have internalized the group's values and norms. Ch. 7 235
  170. Imagery Involves concrete sensory representations of ideas
  171. Implicit memory Involves the nonconscious retrieval of previously encountered stimuli. Ch. 9 325
  172. Impulse purchase Occurs when a consumer sees an item in the store and purchases it with little or no deliberation as the result of a sudden
    powerful urge to have it. Ch. 17 603
  173. In-home shopping Occurs when consumers acquire products through mail
  174. Inactive problem A problem in which the consumer is not aware. Ch. 14 502
  175. Independent self-concept Emphasizes personal goals
  176. Index of Social Position (ISP) A two-item index that is well developed and widely used. Ch. 4 144
  177. Inept set Brands that are actively disliked or avoided by the consumer. Ch. 15 521
  178. Inert set Brands of which the consumer is aware but basically indifferent toward. Ch. 15 521
  179. Inference Goes beyond what is directly stated or presented. Ch. 8 300
  180. Infomercials Program-length commercials (often 30 minutes)
    generally with an 800 number and/or Web address through which to order the product or request additional written information. Ch. 8 282
  181. Information overload Occurs when consumers are confronted with so much information that they cannot or will not attend to all of it. Ch. 8 290
  182. Information processing A series of activities by which stimuli are perceived
    transformed into information
  183. Informational influence Occurs when an individual uses the behaviors and opinions of reference group members as potentially useful bits of information. Ch. 7 234
  184. Injurious consumption When individuals or groups make consumption decisions that have negative consequences for their long-run-well-being. Ch. 1 24
  185. Innovation An idea
  186. Innovators Venturesome risk takers. Ch. 7 254
  187. Interdependent self-concept Emphasizes family
  188. Internal reference price A price or price range that a consumer retrieves from memory to compare with a price in the market. Ch. 17 598
  189. Interpretation The assignment of meaning to sensations. Ch. 8 293
  190. Instrumental materialism The acquisition of things to enable one to do something. Ch. 2 54
  191. Instrumental motives Activate behaviors designed to achieve a second goal. Ch. 16 552
  192. Instrumental performance Relates to the physical functioning of the product. Ch. 18 635
  193. Instrumental training Occurs when a parent or sibling specifically and directly attempts to bring about certain responses through reasoning or reinforcement. Ch. 6 215
  194. Internal search Occurs once a problem is recognized and relevant information from long-term memory is used to determine if a satisfactory solution is known
    what the characteristics of potential solutions are
  195. Involvement A motivational state caused by consumer perceptions that a product
  196. Just noticeable difference (j.n.d.) The minimum amount that one brand can differ from another with the difference still being noticed. Ch. 8 299
  197. Laddering A new projective technique used to construct a means-end or benefit chain. Ch. 10 368
  198. Laggards Locally oriented and engage in limited social interaction. Ch. 7 255
  199. Late majority Members who are skeptical about innovations. Ch. 7 254
  200. Latent motives Motives either unknown to the consumer or such that he was reluctant to admit them. Ch. 10 368
  201. Lead users Innovative organizations that derive a great deal of their success from leading change. Ch. 19 684
  202. Learning Any change in the content or organization of long-term memory or behavior. Ch. 9 318
  203. Lexicographic decision rule Requires the consumer to rank the criteria in order of importance. Ch. 16 569
  204. Lifestyle How one lives Ch. 1 29
  205. Lifestyle How a person lives. Ch. 12 434
  206. Lifestyle centers Small
  207. Limited decision making Involves internal and limited external search
    few alternatives
  208. Long-term memory (LTM) An unlimited
    permanent storage. Ch. 9 319
  209. Low-involvement learning A situation in which the consumer has little or no motivation to process or learn the material. Ch. 9 325
  210. Macrosegmentation The process of grouping organizations with distinguishing firmographics into market segments. Ch. 19 683
  211. Maintenance rehearsal The continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferal to long-term memory. Ch. 9 319
  212. Manifest motives Motives that are known and freely admitted. Ch. 10 367
  213. Market mavens Both initiate discussions with others about products and shopping and respond to requests for market information. Ch. 7 243
  214. Marketing communications Advertising
    the sales force
  215. Marketing mix The product
  216. Marketing strategy Answers the question: How will we provide superior customer value to our target market? Ch. 1 19
  217. Market segment A portion of a larger market whose needs differ from the larger market. Ch. 1 16
  218. Maslow's hierarchy of needs Based on four premises: (1) All humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction. (2) Some motives are more basic or critical than others. (3) The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated. (4) As the basic motives become satisfied
    more advanced motives come into play. Ch. 10 360
  219. Mature market A large and growing market with numerous subsegments that is often categorized as 55 years of age and over. It now spans three generations (pre-Depression
  220. Means�end chain Where a product or brand is repeatedly shown to a consumer who names all the benefits that possession or use of the product might provide until the consumer can no longer identify additional benefits. Ch. 10 368
  221. Mediation Occurs when a parent alters a child's initial interpretation of
    our response to
  222. Memory interference An effect where consumers have difficulty retrieving a specific piece of information because other related information in memory gets in the way. Ch. 9 341
  223. Mere exposure The idea that simply presenting a brand to an individual on a large number of occasions might make the individual's attitude toward the brand more positive. Ch. 11 402
  224. Mere ownership effect The tendency of an owner to evaluate an object more favorably than a nonowner. Ch. 12 430
  225. Message framing Presenting one of two equivalent value outcomes either in positive or gain terms (positive framing) or in negative or loss terms (negative framing). Ch. 11 415
  226. Metagoal Refers to the general nature of the outcome being sought. Ch. 16 551
  227. Modeling Occurs when a child learns appropriate
    or inappropriate
  228. Modeling Occurs when consumers observe the outcome of others' behaviors and adjust their own accordingly. Ch. 9 331
  229. Modern gender orientation A marriage where husband and wife share responsibilities. Ch. 3 101
  230. Monochronic time perspective Time is seen almost as a physical object: it can be scheduled
  231. Moods Transient feeling states that are generally not tied to a specific event or object. Ch. 13 482
  232. Motivation The reason for behavior. Ch. 10 360
  233. Motive A construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction for that response. Ch. 10 360
  234. Multi-channel shoppers Consumers who browse and/or purchase in more than one channel. Ch. 17 593
  235. Multi-item indexes Used to measure social class. Ch. 4 143
  236. Multiattribute attitude model Based on the logic that because all of the components of an attitude are generally consistent
    the more favorable the overall attitude is. Ch. 11 393
  237. Multistep flow of communication Involves opinion leaders for a particular product area who actively seek relevant information from the mass media as well as other sources. Ch. 7 241
  238. Muting Turning the sound off during commercial breaks. Ch. 8 280
  239. Need set Used to reflect the fact that most products in developed economies satisfy more than one need. Ch. 1 16
  240. Nominal decision making Occurs when there is very low involvement with the purchase. Ch. 14 498
  241. Nonfamily household A householder living alone or exclusively with others to whom he or she is not related. Ch. 6 195
  242. Nonverbal communication systems The arbitrary meanings a culture assigns actions
  243. Normative influence Occurs when an individual fulfills group expectations to gain a direct reward or to avoid a sanction. Ch. 7 234
  244. Norms The boundaries that culture sets on behaviors in specific situations. Ch. 2 43
  245. Nouveaux riches Actively seek out high-status brand and activities; doing the "in" thing on a grand scale is important to this group. Ch. 4 138
  246. One-sided messages Messages where the benefits of a particular product are presented without mentioning any negative characteristics it might possess or any advantages a competitor might have. Ch. 11 415
  247. Ongoing search Done both to acquire information for possible later use and because the process itself is pleasurable. Ch. 15 519
  248. Online community A community that interacts over time around a topic of interest on the Internet. Ch. 7 231
  249. Online privacy concerns Relate to consumer fears regarding how personal information about them that is gathered online might be used. Ch. 17 590
  250. Online social network site Web-based service that allows individuals to (1) construct a public or semipublic profile within a bounded system
    (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection
  251. Operant conditioning Or instrumental learning differs from classical conditioning primarily in the role and timing of reinforcement. Ch. 9 328
  252. Opinion leader An individual who actively filters
  253. Organizational culture The self-concept and lifestyle of an organization it reflects and shapes organizational needs and desires
    which in turn influence how organizations make decisions. Ch. 19 680
  254. Other-oriented values Reflect a society's view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society. Ch. 2 45
  255. Peak experience An experience that surpasses the usual level of intensity
  256. Perceived risk A function of the individual
    the product
  257. Perceived risk Considered to be both a consumer characteristic and a product characteristic it involve the risk associated with the purchase of a product that may not perform as expected. Ch. 17 600
  258. Perception Comprised of exposure
  259. Perceptual defenses Individuals are not passive recipients of marketing messages. Ch. 8 279
  260. Perceptual mapping Takes consumers' perceptions of how similar various brands or products are to each other and relates these perceptions to product attributes. Ch. 9 345
  261. Perceptual mapping Another indirect technique that generally involves the consumer first looking at possible pairs of brands and indicating which pair is most similar
    which is second most similar
  262. Product positioning A decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment. Ch. 9 344
  263. Product repositioning A deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views a product. Ch. 9 346
  264. Perceptual relativity An aspect of interpretation that is generally a relative process rather than absolute. Ch. 8 293
  265. Permission based marketing The voluntary and self-selected nature of online offerings where consumers "opt in" to receive e-mail-based promotions. Ch. 8 283
  266. Personal space The nearest others can come to you in various situations without your feeling uncomfortable. Ch. 2 59
  267. Personality An individual's characteristic response tendencies across similar situations. Ch. 10 373
  268. Physical surroundings Include d�cor
  269. Piaget's stages of cognitive development A widely accepted set of stages of cognitive development. Ch. 6 214
  270. Polychronic time perspective People and relationships take priority over schedules
    and activities occur at their own pace rather than according to a predetermined timetable. Followers of this perspective have an orientation toward the present and the past. Ch. 2 57
  271. Postpurchase dissonance Occurs when a consumer has feelings of doubt or anxiety after a purchase has been made. Ch. 18 623
  272. Power distance The degree to which people accept inequality in power
  273. Prevention focused motives Prevention-focused motives revolve around a desire for safety and security and are related to consumers' sense of duties and obligations. Ch. 10 372
  274. Price The amount of money one must pay to obtain the right to use the product. Ch. 1 21
  275. Primary groups Groups characterized by frequent interpersonal contact. Ch. 7 227
  276. Private self-concept How I am or would like to be to myself. Ch. 12 428
  277. PRIZM A set of 62 lifestyle clusters organized into 12 broad social groups. Ch. 12 444
  278. Problem recognition The result of a discrepancy between a desired state and an actual state that is sufficient to arouse and activate the decision process. Ch. 14 500
  279. Product Anything a consumer acquires or might acquire to meet a perceived need. Ch. 1 19
  280. Product involvement Occurs when a consumer is very involved with a brand or a product category and yet has a very low level of involvement with a particular purchase of that product because of brand loyalty
    time pressures
  281. Product nonuse Occurs when a consumer actively acquires a product that is not used or used only sparingly relative to its potential use. Ch. 18 628
  282. Product placement Shows how and when to use a product and it enhances the product's image. Ch. 8 280
  283. Product position An image of the product or brand in the consumer's mind relative to competing products and brands. Ch. 1 23
  284. Projective techniques Designed to provide information on latent motives. Ch. 10 368
  285. Projective techniques A form of indirect methods that allow the respondent to indicate the criteria someone else might use. Ch. 16 559
  286. Promotion focused motives Promotion-focused motives revolve around a desire for growth and development and are related to consumers' hopes and aspirations. Ch. 10 372
  287. Proximity Refers to the fact that stimuli positioned close together are perceived as belonging to the same category. Ch. 8 297
  288. Psychographics Attempts to develop quantitative measures of lifestyle. Ch. 12 435
  289. Pulsing frequent (close together) repetitions used any time it is important to produce widespread knowledge of the product rapidly. Ch. 9 339
  290. Punishment Any consequence that decreases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future. Ch. 9 336
  291. Purchase involvement The level of concern for
    or intent in
  292. Purchasing power parity (PPP) Based on the cost in U.S. dollars of a standard market basket of products bought in each country. Ch. 2 68
  293. Purchase situations The situation in which consumers make their product selection. Ch. 13 472
  294. Reference group A groups whose presumed perspectives or values are being used by an individual as the basis for his or her current behavior. Ch. 7 227
  295. Reference group infrastructure Refers to the flow of purchase influence within an industry. Ch. 19 684
  296. Reference price A price with which other prices are compared. Ch. 17 597
  297. Regional subcultures Arise as a result of climatic conditions
    the natural environment and resources
  298. Regulatory focus theory Regulatory focus theory suggests that consumers will react differently depending on which broad set of motives is most salient. Ch. 10 372
  299. Reinforcement Anything that increases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future. Ch. 9 336
  300. Relationship marketing An attempt to develop an ongoing
    expanding exchange relationship with a firm's customers. Ch. 18 645
  301. Religious subcultures Different religions that prescribe differing values and behaviors. Ch. 5 179
  302. Repeat purchasers Continue to buy the same brand though they do not have an emotional attachment to it. Ch. 18 640
  303. Retail attraction (gravitation) model Used to calculate the level of store attraction based on store size and distance from the consumer. Ch. 17 598
  304. Retrieval failure Happens in cognitive learning when information that is available in LTM cannot be accessed
    that is
  305. Rhetorical figures Involve the use of an unexpected twist or artful deviation in how a message is communicated either visually in the ad's picture or verbally in the ad's text or headline. Ch. 8 297
  306. Ritual situation A socially defined occasion that triggers a set of unrelated behaviors that occur in a structured format and that have symbolic meaning. Ch. 13 483
  307. Sanctions Penalties ranging from mild social disapproval to banishment from the group. Ch. 2 43
  308. Schema A complex web of associations. Ch. 9 322
  309. Script Memory of how an action sequence should occur. Ch. 9 324
  310. Search engine optimization (SEO) Involves techniques designed to ensure that a company's Web pages "are accessible to search engines and focused in ways that help improve the chances they will be found." Ch. 15 531
  311. Secondary groups Groups characterized by limited interpersonal contact. Ch. 7 227
  312. Secular society A society where the educational system
  313. Selective problem recognition A discrepancy that only one brand can solve. Ch. 14 508
  314. Self concept The totality of an individuals thoughts and feelings about him-or herself. Ch. 1 29
  315. Self concept The totality of the individual's thoughts and feelings having reference to him-or herself as an object. Ch. 12 428
  316. Self-oriented values Reflect the objectives and approaches to life that the individual members of society find desirable. Ch. 2 45
  317. Self-referencing Indicates that consumers are relating brand information to themselves. Ch. 9 336
  318. Semantic memory The basic knowledge and feelings an individual has about a concept. Ch. 9 321
  319. Sensory discrimination The ability of an individual to distinguish between similar stimuli. Ch. 8 299
  320. Sensory discrimination The ability of an individual to distinguish between similar stimuli. Ch. 16 561
  321. Service Auxiliary or peripheral activities that are performed to enhance the primary product or service. Ch. 1 22
  322. Servicescape Refers to atmosphere when describing a service business such as a hospital
  323. Servicescape Refers to atmosphere when describing a service business such as a hospital
  324. Shaping The process of encouraging partial responses leading to the final desired response. Ch. 9 329
  325. Shopping orientation A shopping style that puts particular emphasis on certain activities or shopping motivations. Ch. 17 602
  326. Short-term memory (STM) A limited capacity to store information and sensations. Ch. 9 319
  327. Single-item indexes Estimate social status on the basis of a single dimension. Ch. 4 143
  328. Situational influence All those factors particular to a time and place that do not follow from a knowledge of personal and stimulus (choice alternative) attributes and that have an effect on current behavior. Ch. 13 470
  329. Smart banners Banner ads that are activated based on items used in search engines. Ch. 8 290
  330. Social class system A hierarchical division of a society into relatively distinct and homogeneous groups with respect to attitudes
  331. Social marketing The application of marketing strategies and tactics to alter or create behaviors that have a positive effect on the targeted individuals or society as a whole. Ch. 1 10
  332. Social self-concept How I am seen by others or how I would like to be seen by others. Ch. 12 428
  333. Social surroundings The other individuals present during the consumption process. Ch. 13 477
  334. Societal rank One's position relative to others on one or more dimensions valued by society. Ch. 4 135
  335. Source credibility Based on two basic dimensions
    trustworthiness and expertise
  336. Spillover sales Sales of additional items to customers who came to purchase an advertised item. Ch. 17 596
  337. Spokescharacters Can be animated animals
  338. Sponsorship A company providing financial support for an event. Ch. 11 409
  339. Status crystallization The question of whether or not an individual with high status based on one dimension will have high status based on the other dimensions. Ch. 4 136
  340. Stimulus discrimination The process of learning to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli. Ch. 9 332
  341. Stimulus generalization Often referred to as the rub-off effect
    occurs when a response to one stimulus is elicited by a similar but distinct stimulus. Ch. 9 333
  342. Stimulus organization Refers to the physical arrangement of the stimulus objects. Ch. 8 297
  343. Stockouts Refers to the store being temporarily out of a particular brand. Ch. 17 608
  344. Store atmosphere The sum of all physical features of a retail environment. Ch. 13 475
  345. Store atmosphere Influenced by such attributes as lighting
  346. Store brands Closely related to store image this occurs when the store or outlet is the brand. Ch. 17 595
  347. Store image A given consumer's or target market's perception of all the attributes associated with a retail outlet. Ch. 17 594
  348. Subculture A segment of a larger culture whose members share distinguishing values and patterns of behavior. Ch. 5 156
  349. Subjective discretionary income (SDI) An estimate by the consumer of how much money he or she has available to spend on nonessentials. Ch. 4 122
  350. Subliminal stimulus A message presented so fast or so softly or so masked by other messages that one is not aware of seeing or hearing it. Ch. 8 293
  351. Surrogate indicator An attribute used to stand for or indicate another attribute. Ch. 16 562
  352. Sustainability Involves methods that are (a) profitable for the farmer
    (b) environmentally sound
  353. Switching costs The costs of finding
  354. Symbolic performance Relates to aesthetic or image-enhancement performance. Ch. 18 635
  355. Target market That segment(s) of the larger market on which we will focus our marketing effort. Ch. 1 18
  356. Task definition The reason the consumption activity is occurring. Ch. 13 481
  357. Temporal perspective Situational characteristics that deal with the effect of time on consumer behavior. Ch. 13 480
  358. Terminal materialism The acquisition of items for the sake of owning the item itself. Ch. 2 54
  359. Terms and conditions Payments
  360. Testimonial ad A person
    generally a typical member of the target market
  361. Total product The product features
  362. Traditional family A married couple and their own or adopted children living at home. Ch. 6 195
  363. Traditional gender orientation A marriage with the husband assuming the responsibility for providing for the family and the wife running the house and taking care of the children. Ch. 3 101
  364. Two-sided message Messages that provide good and bad points of a particular product. Ch. 11 415
  365. Two-stage decision process Involves the evaluation of possible vendors and selection of a given vendor. Ch. 19
  366. Two-step flow of communication The process of one person receiving information form the mass media or other sources and passing it on to others. Ch. 7 241
  367. Unplanned purchases Purchases made in a store that are different from those the consumer planned to make prior to entering the store. Ch. 17 602
  368. Usage situations The situation in which consumers select a product based on appropriateness for a specific use. Ch. 13 472
  369. Use innovativeness Refers to a consumer using a product in a new way. Ch. 18 626
  370. Utilitarian appeals Involve informing the consumer of one or more functional benefits that are important to the target market. Ch. 11 414
  371. VALS Provides a systemic classification of American adults into eight distinct consumer segments. Ch. 12 439
  372. Value-expressive appeals Attempt to build a personality for the product or create an image of the product user. Ch. 11 414
  373. Verbal communication systems
    Verbal communication systems necessarily involve exchange of ideas or opinions, through Languages.

    Ch. 2 56
  374. Vicarious learning
    Occurs when consumers observe the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjust their own accordingly.

    Ch. 9 331
  375. Viral marketing
    An online "pass-it-along" strategy. It "uses electronic communications to trigger brand messages throughout a widespread network of buyers."

    Ch. 7 246
  376. Voluntary simplicity
    Consumers' efforts to reduce their reliance on consumption and material possessions.

    Ch. 3 87
  377. Word-of-mouth (WOM) communications
    Individuals sharing information with other individuals.

    Ch. 7 238
  378. Working-class aristocrats
    Dislike the upper-middle class and prefer products and stores positioned at their social-class level.

    Ch. 4 141
  379. Zapping
    Involves switching channels when a commercial appears.

    Ch. 8 280
  380. Zipping
    Occurs when one fast-forwards through a commercial on a prerecorded program.

    Ch. 8 280
Card Set
consumer behavior definitions