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When are Group I laxatives used?
- To clean out bowel for procedure or surgery
- Osmotic stimulant
- Creates a very watery bowel
- Effective in 2-6 hours
When are Group II laxatives used?
- Stimulate gut after it has become sluggish
- Semi-fluid in 6-12 hours
- Osmotic stumulant
When are Group III laxatives used?
- Used on a daily basis to keep stool soft
- Examples: bulk, surfactant, lactulose
What is a bulk laxative similar to?
It acts to enlarge the mass and stretch the walls of the intestine to increase peristalsis
It also absorbs water to soften the stool
How does surfactant work as a laxative?
Lowers surface tension
Allows for greater water absorption
Increase water and electrolytes in the intestinal lumen
Draw water into the gut
High doses can be harmful to cardiac patients
Used to pull water into the gut and empty the bowels quickly
Laxative that acts as a lubricant
Taking orally, difficult to swallow, can lead to aspiration
Can decrease absorption of vitamins in the gut
Enhances intestinal secretion of Ammonia
Why do people with liver failure use Lactulose?
People with liver failure have high levels of ammonia
Lactulose enhances the intestinal secretion of ammonia
Will decrease ammonia levels by holding it in the stool
For a patient receiving chemotherapy, what would you expect to see prescribed to treat the associated N/V?
If a patient taking Zofran is still experiencing CINV (Chemo induced nausea and vomiting), what else might be prescribed?
What would you look at before passing Emend?
What other drugs might be effected by it
Emend can inhibit or increase drug metabolism by altering metabolizing liver enzymes
What is the action of Emend?
It blocks Substance P
It is a neurokinin antagonist
What can be given IV with chemo to prevent N/V short term?
- Methylprednisolone (solumedrol)
- Dexamethasone (decadron)
What is the drug of choice for Dopamine antagonists and what is it used for?
- Used as an antiemetic
- Has psychological effects, so not used much
What drug is used for motion sickness and what class is it?
- It is a Muscarinic antagonist (anti-cholinergic)
What is the strongest class of anti-diarrheals?
Why is Lotronex bad for treating IBS?
It has a high mortality rate and requires special acknowledgements from the patient and the doctor to prescribe it
What other drug besides Lotronex can be used for IBS?
Chron's disease is an _________ disorder
What drugs can be used to treat Chron's
Aminosalicylates can be used to treat _______, what are two examples?
- & Pentasa
For acute symptoms of IBD/Chron's, use what?
Long term treatment of IBD/Chron's can be treated with what?
Prokinetic drugs can be used to treat ______ and the drug of choice is __________
When are pancreatic enzymes taken?
For someone who does not produce the enzymes to break down food, such as cystic fibrosis
It is taken with every meal
Actigall is taken to treat what?
It has less side effects than Chenix, which include diarrhea and liver damage