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  1. Italian Geography
    • Excellent arable soil; able to support large
    • pop.

    • Climate, mild, more rainfall than Greece, little
    • extreme weaher
  2. Sources

    • Continuous narrative texts – written history, by
    • Romans and Italians – do not appear until late 2nd Century BC

    • Politicized/mythologized oral tradition :Highly dubious 
    • Texts
    • Capitoline fasti consulares List of consuls 
    • Capitoline fasti triumphales  List of men who celebrated Triumphs


    Livy: “early Roman history has come to us in old stories with more the charm of myth than of a sound historical record
  3. Otzi
    • discovered alps, copper stand age man with Axe
    • tooth enamel analysis, life in italy, bones: foot travel, stomach parasites, peculiar tattos indicate medicine, arrow head in shoulder, DNA showed he killed at least 2 people,
  4. Early Italy
    small villages, no more than 100 people, pastoralism (live stock), farming, agriculture, pottery
  5. Bronze Age Apennine Culture
    geometric pottery up and down peninsular, population spares and scattered, seasonal migration of ,live stock but werent nomads, settlements firmly established with agriculture at fixed points
  6. Italy Bronze Age
    • Po Valley inhabited by Terrmara- sub appenine culture
    • In Etruria Sub-Apennine cultures exist alonside Proto-Villanovan culture disapears by iron age
  7. Italy Bronze age transition period
    • larger number and size settlements
    • improved metal work
    • cremation replaces inhumation: ashes in Urns as seen in Po Valley with Terramarra peoples
  8. Italy Iron Age: Villanovans in Wtruria, Bologna, Campania
    settlements 10000 people, emergence of common identity cremating Culture no writing Dont know if immigrants or not, only information burials, common identity among inhabitants inicated bu groups of cemeteries
  9. Latium: Latial culture partiacy
    small settlements 100 inhabitants, patriarchy/social hierarchy, cremation, men of high statuesplaced in centure of burial complex with pottery and bronze objects, hut urn indicates relationship to house holds, bodies surrounding this burial were buried, women and young men with beading/broaches
  10. 8th Century Latium
    Rome: Forum Boarium emerges as market place, defensive fortification, foundation 21st April 753 BC, early cemeteries abandoned, imported greek pottery in old parts of city, wall proof of romes development into unified community
  11. etruscan/Rasenna civilisation origins
    • greatest influence on Romes development
    • non-indo-european: have language from eaturia using greek alphabet, no evidence of sudden migration from elsewhere when etruscan civilisation began, largely indiginous civiliation
  12. Etruscan civilisation (hight)
    • eventually came to dominate Italians around them had:
    • high civilisation living in cities
    • complex social organisation
    • class system
    • military alliance, conquered other parts of italy 
    • unable to dominate greeks
  13. Greeks overview
    • formed own high civilisation
    • increased population, prosperity
    • caused rome to be resource poor
    • consolidation era 750-550 BC
  14. Magna Graecia
    • southern italy and sicily
    • very wealthy 
    • peaceful and violent colonisation
    • marginalization of indigenous  people
    • clearing inorder to establish cities
    • settlements grew wealthy in short period
  15. Historical Period (8th C)
    Italy dominated by 3 peoples:

    italic peoples (indo-european), liguarians, Roamsn, samnites sabines, picentes, veneti


  16. Rome: City on Tiber
    • Tiber = rive
    • situated on flat swampy plains
    • was drained, remained fertile
    • hills good natural defence on all sides
  17. Rome: destined to be imperial power
    • romans grew up in tough neighbourhood
    • regarded gods not natural resources as reason for success
    • surrounded by equally/more agressive powers 
    • attacked and occupied repeatedly
  18. Early Roman History
    • 390: Gauls/celts attck rome all historical records wiped out
    • 753-509 rome ruled by 7 kings , last king Tarquinius Superbus an etruscan king/tyrant, expelled by brutus and established republic
  19. Roman Social Organisation
    • no more than 12 families ontop of social pyramid
    • Caste system: patrician and plebians
    • 3 BC, arisocracy mixture of casts due to patrician decline
  20. Nobiles
    small minority families with consular ancestor
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