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What are the two main types of parasites? And what is the difference between them?
- Protozoa - single celled organisms
- Metazoa - multicellular organisms
What are the features of protozoan parasites?
- Multiply within the host - they are able to increase their numbers within the host
- Short gestation times (days)
- Usually cause acute infections especially in young, old, pregnant and lactating animals
- Can have some chronic infections where the host is never clear of the infection
What are the features of metazoan parasites?
- Rarely multiply in host - infection/disease is dependent on the number of infecting parasites
- Long gestation time (weeks/months)
- Chronic infections are common
- Immunity to metazoan parasites can develop but these parasites are good at suppressing immune responses
How are parasites transmitted?
- Directly - infection from environment e.g. water, faeces, soil
- Indirectly - infection from vector e.g. insect, snail, slug (the vector is essential for parasite development)
Where the parasite locates in the body depends upon its …?
Give two examples of blood borne protozoan parasites
- Babesia - RBC parastite. Problem mainly in cattle, dogs and humans
- Leishmania - macrophage parasite. Problem mainly in dogs and humans.
What is the vector for Babesia?
What disease does Babesia cause?
Sever haemolytic anaemia - the parasite replicates within RBCs causing them to lyse. Upt o 75% of RBCs are destroyed.
What prevention and treatment can be used to tackle Babesia?
- Treatment - drug imidocarb
- Prevention - acaracides to kill ticks
What condition does Babesia cause in cattle?
Haemoglobinuria (red water fever)
What is the vector for Leishmania?
What disease does Leishmania cause?
Leishmania replicates in macrophage cells. It causes skin ulcers or hair loss, eczema, fever and enlarged lymph nodes - in sever cases it can be fatal.
What is the treatment and prevention for Leishmania?
- Treatment - drug (helpful eh?!)
- Prevention - insecticide to kill sandflies (scalibor collar)
What disease does the metazoan filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis cause?
Heartworm - chronic cough, exercise intolerance, cardiovascular dysfunction
What is the vector for Dirofilaria immitis?
What is the location in the host of Dirofilaria immitis?
Adults develop in the right artery of the heart. Larvae circulate in the blood.
What is the treatment and prevention for Dirofilaria immitis?
- Treatment - anthelmintic drugs (e.g. ivermectin)
- Prevention - insecticides to kill mosquitos (scalibor collar)
What stage of the nematode life cycle is infective to the host?
The L3 stage